8.6.3  Complications of shoulder presentation

Complications include:

  • Cord prolapse
  • Trauma to a prolapsed arm
  • Obstructed labour and ruptured uterus
  • Fetal hypoxia and death.

Remember that a shoulder presentation means the baby cannot be born through the vagina; if you detect it in a woman who is already in labour, refer her urgently to a higher health facility.

Important!In all cases of malpresentation or malposition, do not attempt to turn the baby with your hands! Only a specially trained doctor or midwife should attempt this. Refer the mother so she and her baby can get emergency obstetric care.

8.6.2  Diagnosis of shoulder presentation

8.7  Multiple pregnancy