9.2.4  Abnormalities of the reproductive tract

A possible cause of obstructed labour is if the mother has a tumour (growth or swelling of tissue) in her pelvic cavity, or a scarred birth canal due to a severe type of female genital mutilation (‘female circumcision’). Or she may have a tight perineum (the area between the vulva and the anus), which does not stretch in order to allow the baby to pass through.

Female genital mutilation is the subject of Study Session 5 in the Module on Adolescent and Youth Reproductive Health.

9.2.3 Fetal abnormalities

9.3  Clinical signs of obstructed labour