10.2.2  Traditional abdominal massage

In some parts of Ethiopia, abdominal massage during labour is a common cultural practice, particularly when labour is prolonged. Traditional birth attendants or village women use butter and other lubricants to rub the abdomen and apply pressure on the fundus (rounded top) of the uterus to try to push the baby downwards. This is an extremely harmful traditional practice since it can lead to a ruptured uterus, especially in multiparous women (for the reasons given above).

10.2.1  Uterine inertia

10.2.3  Inappropriate use of uterotonic agents