4.5.1 Wood residues
Around 15% of the standing tree crop is left behind as forestry residues during operations such as thinning plantations and de-limbing felled trees. However integrated harvesting techniques used in countries such as Sweden can enable a fraction of the residues to be used for heat and/or power generation.
Possibly the largest use of wood wastes as fuel is in the pulp and paper industries, where the production plant has ready access to such wastes. There are also by-products from cereal crops, which will be discussed next.