Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary


Glossary for SD805_2
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C

conditional response

The response triggered by a conditional stimulus, e.g. the salivation caused by a bell following conditioning.


conditioned place preference

A preference for a location associated with a drug. Suppose that a rat is injected with a drug in a distinctive (e.g. striped) arm of a T-shaped maze. It is then placed in the stem of the maze and given a choice of arm. A preference for being in the arm in which it experienced the drug is termed a conditioned place preference.


conditioning

The term used to describe a procedure whereby an animal’s reaction to a situation is changed. For example, it might be conditioned to salivate to a bell or to press a lever to obtain food.

See classical conditioning; instrumental conditioning.

connective tissue

The packaging tissue that fills the space around the body’s internal structures. It is also present within internal structures.


contingency

An arrangement such that one event is arranged or programmed to follow another. For example, a classical contingency is where a neutral stimulus is arranged to occur just before an unconditional stimulus. In an instrumental contingency, it is arranged that an event (e.g. food presentation) occurs immediately after a response by the animal (e.g. lever-pressing).


continuous reinforcement

 A schedule of reinforcement in which each response is reinforced, e.g. each lever-press earns a pellet of food.

contraprepared

An animal is said to be contraprepared to learn something when it has a bias against learning it. For example, whereas rats are easily able to learn an association between a taste and gastrointestinal upset, it is difficult to teach them an association between a sound and gastrointestinal upset.

See also prepared.

cortex

The outer layer of grey matter of the brain.


corticosterone

A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands at times of challenge and stress. A member of the class of hormones known as corticosteroids.


cortisol

One of the hormones belonging to the class called corticosteroids.



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