Addiction and neural ageing
Addiction and neural ageing

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Glossary for SD805_2
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covalent bond

Chemical bond involving pairs of electrons shared between atoms; one pair of shared electrons constitutes a single bond, two pairs a double bond and three pairs a triple bond.

cranial nerve

A nerve conveying information between the brain and regions of the head, e.g. the optic nerve.

creatine phosphate

Molecule in skeletal muscle which phosphorylates ADP, thus producing ATP for use in muscle contraction:

creatine phosphate + ADP Equalibrium creatine + ATP

The reaction is reversible, and creatine phosphate is regenerated (by phosphorylation from ATP) when the muscle is at rest.


Folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

cross-sectional method

An experimental method which involves making comparisons between groups of people from different sections of the population made at the same point in time.

cultural evolution

The gradual changes to the customs, beliefs, values, knowledge and actions of human societies, which have been occurring for perhaps the last million years.


Technical name for the method (cell or tissue culture) used to study biological phenomena in the cell population that was, first, isolated from the animal of interest. A technique that allows living cells to be grown outside the body. Depending on the cell type, they might survive for a few days only, or they might differentiate and proliferate and continue the cell line for many years.

Cushing syndrome

A hormonal/metabolic disorder caused by hyperplasia of the pituitary gland, an increase in secretion of ACTH, and consequent hyperplasia of the adrenal gland.


The final stage of cell division; the separation into two cells, of a cell that has undergone nuclear division.


All the cell contents outside the nucleus, i.e. cytosol, organelles, intracellular membranes, cytoskeleton, ribosomes.

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