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Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

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This free course was written by Rachel McMullan and Sarah Palmer. It was first published in October 2018.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:


Figure 1 © Heiti Paves in WikiMedia

Figure 2a © Eye of Science/Science Photo Library

Figure 2b © Steve Gschmeissner/Science Photo Library

Figure 2c © NIAID

Figure 2d © NIAID

Figure 2e © David Dorward/NIAID

Figure 2f © NIAID

Figure 4 from Gell=band, H, et al (2015) The State of the Worlds Antibiotics 2015

Figure 5 from Gell=band, H, et al (2015) The State of the Worlds Antibiotics 2015


Video 2 BBC Learning Zone © BBC

Video 4 What is a superbug?, Pain, Pus and Poison, episode 2 © BBC

Video 5 A very serious issue, Sally Davis talking in 2013 © BBC

Audio 1 Scientists’ perspective on the antibiotic resistance threat, Inside Science, BBC Radio 4 Fighting Antimicrobial Resistance (last broadcast 9 June 2016) © BBC


Article 1: The History of Germ Theory, Big Picture by the Educational and Editorial Teams at Wellcome Trust

Article 2: extract from Bacteria that resist 'last antibiotic' found in UK, James Gallagher Health Editor, BBC News website 21.12.2015, © BBC

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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