Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

4.3.3 The UTI dipstick test

A photo of urine test strips.
Figure 12 Urine test strips.

Several Gram-negative bacteria cause urinary infections, for example E. coli and Klebsiella. They produce an enzyme called nitrate reductase and can convert the nitrates in urine to nitrites. You do not need to know the details of this reaction, just that these nitrites can be detected using the Greiss reaction in which nitrites react to produce a pink dye. The presence of pink on the dipstick test can therefore indicate a bacterial urinary infection, although this test is not completely reliable.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371