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Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

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This free course was written by Rachel McMullan and Sarah Palmer. It was first published in October 2018.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.


Figure 1: AJC1 in Flickr licenses/ by-sa/ 2.0/

Figure 2: Docwarhol licenses/ by-sa/ 4.0/ deed.en wiki/ File:Streptomyces_griseus_color_enhanced_scanning_electron_micrograph..jpg

Figure 3: adapted from bas scheme 8 in this paper Wright, P. M., Seiple, I. B., and Myers, A. G. (2014). The Evolving Role of Chemical Synthesis in Antibacterial Drug

Figure 4: adapted from en/ research-and-analysis/ reports/ 2016/ 05/ a-scientific-roadmap-for-antibiotic-discovery © Pew Charitable Trust

Figure 6: en/ research-and-analysis/ reports/ 2016/ 05/ a-scientific-roadmap-for-antibiotic-discovery © Pew Charitable Trust

Figure 7: adapted from pmc/ articles/ PMC4536949/

Figure 8: adapted from pmc/ articles/ PMC4536949/

Figure 9: taken from: PharmaFactz; Medicinal Chemistry of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics; © PharmaFactz 2018


Video 2: Penicillin rediscovered, clip from Britains Greatest Invention (broadcast on BBC) courtesy Thoroughly Modern Media

Video 3: Mass production of penicillin, Pain, Pus and Poison, Episode 2, © BBC.

Video 4: South American leafcutter ants, clip from BBC Britains Greatest Invention (2017) courtesy of Thoroughly Modern Media

Audio 1: Cephalosporins-Chemistry in its element, Chemistry World;

Audio 2 Inside Science, Radio 4, International Year of Soil, broadcast 15/1/2015. © BBC


Article 1: Brute force can overcome antibiotic resistance (UCL 2017), courtesy of Joseph Ndieyira; UCL

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