4 The nature of digital scholarship
One way to consider the nature of change that digital scholarship represents is to take an existing framework for categorising scholarly activity and examine how these practices are impacted. Weller takes this approach in the book The Digital Scholar, using Ernest Boyer’s 1990 classification. Using data gathered from more than 5,000 faculty members, Boyer (1990) classified the types of activities in which scholars regularly engage. His report sought to place all scholarly activity on an equal footing, stating: ‘What we urgently need today is a more inclusive view of what it means to be a scholar – a recognition that knowledge is acquired through research, through synthesis, through practice, and through teaching’ (Boyer, 1990, p. 24).
In Boyer's definition of scholarship, there are four components, each of which, he suggests, should be considered as of equal value by universities and government policy. These are:
- Discovery – This is the creation of new knowledge in a specific area or discipline. This is often taken to be synonymous with research. This is probably closest to the public conception of scholarship, as universities are often the site of significant breakthroughs.
- Integration – This is focused on interpretation and interdisciplinary work. It is moving away from the pure, ‘genesis’ research of discovery. Boyer states that it is ‘making connections across the disciplines, placing the specialties in larger context, illuminating data in a revealing way, often educating non-specialists’.
- Application – This is related to the concept of service, and can be seen as engagement with the wider world outside academia, which might include public engagement activities as well as input into policy and general media discussions. This can also include the time spent peer-reviewing journal articles and grant applications and sitting on various committees.
- Teaching – Much of the interpretation of Boyer can be seen as an attempt to raise the profile of teaching. He argues that ‘the work of the professor becomes consequential only as it is understood by others. Yet, today, teaching is often viewed as a routine function, tacked on’.
In the next four weeks we will take each of these components in turn and consider the digital scholarship perspective on them. As an overview, watch this short video with Micah Altman, the director of research for MIT Libraries.
Activity _unit2.4.1 Activity 3 Four aspects of digital scholarship
Before you consider each of these aspects of scholarship and how they can be influenced by digital technologies, take some time to consider what will be the biggest change for each component. Make notes or use your blog to jot down your thoughts and add the hashtag #dscholar if you wish to make them available to others.