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Financial methods in environmental decisions
Financial methods in environmental decisions

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2.1 Determining external costs

A detailed method for determining the external costs of energy production processes was developed by the ExternE project, funded by the European Union (EU), which began work in 1991. Although still concentrating on energy production, the ExternE methodology has since been used for transport, waste management and several industrial processes. If you want to know more about the ExternE method, a number of articles are available on the ExternE website at