Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Understanding antibiotic resistance

4.1 The origin of CTX-M-type ESBLs

Unlike most acquired β-lactamases, for which the source remains unknown, the source of CTX-M-type ESBLs has been identified as members of the bacterial genusKluyvera.

Kluyvera spp. are soil bacteria which are associated with plant roots and are non-pathogenic to humans. Precursors of the CTX-M genes found in E. coli have been identified as chromosomal genes in Kluyvera spp. where they can confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (Humeniuk et al., 2002).

  • The resistance of Kluyvera spp. to third generation cephalosporins is an example of what type of resistance?

  • It is an example of intrinsic resistance.

These chromosomal CTX-M precursor genes have been captured and incorporated into plasmids through mechanisms that you do not need to know about in this course.

In the next section, you will look at how these plasmid-encoded CTX-M genes have been rapidly spread by horizontal gene transfer to other bacterial types, including E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

UAR_1

Take your learning further371

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses372.

If you are new to university level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. Find out Where to take your learning next?373 You could either choose to start with an Access courses374or an open box module, which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification.

Not ready for University study then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn375 and sign up to our newsletter376 to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371