Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

Free course

Understanding antibiotic resistance


Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) (2017) ResistanceMap [Online]. Available at https://resistancemap.cddep.org/ [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 28 April 2018).
GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) (2018) Antibiotics research [Online]. Available at www.gsk.com/ en-gb/ research/ what-we-are-working-on/ antibiotics-research/ (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Meek, R. W., Vyas, H. and Piddock, L. J. V. (2015) ‘Nonmedical uses of antibiotics: time to restrict their use?’, Public Library of Science [Online]. Available at https://doi.org/ 10.1371/ journal.pbio.1002266 (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Ocan, M., Obuku, E. A., Bwanga, F., Akena, D., Richard, S., Ogwal-Okeng, J. and Obua, C. (2015) ‘Household antimicrobial self-medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the burden, risk factors and outcomes in developing countries’, BMC Public Health, vol. 15, p. 742. [Online]. Available at http://doi.org/ 10.1186/ s12889-015-2109-3 (Accessed 28 April 2018).
O’Neill, J. (2015) ‘Antimicrobials in agriculture and the environment: reducing unnecessary use and waste’, The Review of Antimicrobial Resistance [Online]. Available at https://amr-review.org/ sites/ default/ files/ Antimicrobials%20in%20agriculture%20and%20the%20environment%20-%20Reducing%20unnecessary%20use%20and%20waste.pdf (Accessed 28 April 2018).
O’Neill, J. (2016) ‘Infection prevention, control and surveillance: limiting the development and spread of drug resistance’, The Review of Antimicrobial Resistance [Online]. Available at https://amr-review.org/ sites/ default/ files/ Health%20infrastructure%20and%20surveillance%20final%20version_LR_NO%20CROPS.pdf (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Public Health England (2015) Health matters: antimicrobial resistance [Online]. Available at www.gov.uk/ government/ publications/ health-matters-antimicrobial-resistance/ health-matters-antimicrobial-resistance (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Van Boeckel, T. P., Brower, C., Gilbert, M., Grenfell, B. T., Levin, S. A., Robinson, T. P., Teillant, A. and Laxminarayan, R. (2015) ‘Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112, no. 18, pp. 5649–54 [Online]. Available at www.pnas.org/ content/ 112/ 18/ 5649 (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Ventola, C. L. (2015) ‘The antibiotic resistance crisis: part 1: causes and threats’, Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 277–83 [Online]. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC4378521/ (Accessed 28 April 2018).
Wi, T. E., Lahra, M., Ndowa, F., Bala, M., Dillon, J.-A., Pardo, P. R., Eremin, R., Bolan, G. and Unemo, M. (2017) ‘Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: global surveillance and a call for international collaborative action’, Public Library of Science [Online]. Available at http://journals.plos.org/ plosmedicine/ article?id=10.1371/ journal.pmed.1002344 (Accessed 28 April 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2017a) Antibacterial agents in clinical development: an analysis of the antibacterial clinical development pipeline, including tuberculosis [Online]. Available at www.who.int/ medicines/ areas/ rational_use/ antibacterial_agents_clinical_development/ en/ (Accessed 28 April 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2017b) Global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS) report [Online]. Available at http://www.who.int/ glass/ resources/ publications/ early-implementation-report/ en/ (Accessed 28 April 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2017c) The world is running out of antibiotics, WHO report confirms [Online]. Available at www.who.int/ mediacentre/ news/ releases/ 2017/ running-out-antibiotics/ en/ (Accessed 28 April 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2017d) Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea on the rise, new drugs needed [Online]. Available at https://www.who.int/ en/ news-room/ detail/ 07-07-2017-antibiotic-resistant-gonorrhoea-on-the-rise-new-drugs-needed (Accessed 28 April 2018).

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371