2.2.5 Relevant data and management

An effective policy requires solid and relevant data to underpin its development, allow assessment of the progress made and objectives achieved, and enable its possible revision. Bearing in mind the resource constraints and difficulties of obtaining reliable and good-quality data (not just numbers), especially in resource-poor systems, the data set should cover inasmuch as possible the major dimensions of teaching (as set out in Chapter 3) for all geographic areas, population groups and education levels within the scope of this Guide. Capturing information on attitudes, beliefs and perceptions (as an experts’ review described it, what is in the ‘black box’) through qualitative teacher surveys can be vital to understanding motivation (or frustration) – and consequently, effectiveness. Analysis of teacher indicators should be read closely with indicators of learning outcomes to meet the basic objectives (Teacher Task Force, 2011a: 18, 25; UNESCO,2012b: 11–16). Several international organizations offer cross-national indicators and databases that can inform country policy (see Section 2.3).

2.2.4 Assessing the environment: difficulties, challenges, and gaps

2.2.6 Funding needs and sources