3.5.4 Availability and quality of teaching and learning materials

The availability to teachers of sufficient, good-quality instructional materials and to learners of sufficient, good- quality educational supplies and materials, including text books, is a major factor in teacher satisfaction and motivation, as well as in educational outcomes (UNESCO, 2014a). Teachers should be consulted on the types of teaching and learning materials they will use, and involved in their choice and development (ILO/UNESCO, 1966). In addition to prioritizing the availability of good-quality teaching and learning materials, a teacher policy may promote creative solutions to maximize instructional effectiveness. In low-resource contexts, teacher education – both initial and continuous – can focus on helping teachers deliver effective teaching using the locally available resources, as well as training teachers to produce teaching and learning aids using local materials. Where teachers are expected to create their own teaching aids, this should be reflected in their hours of work.

3.5.3 School infrastructure

3.5.5 Student behaviour and discipline