3.9 School governance

School governance has been identified as a crucial factor in both teacher motivation (and therefore teacher morale, performance and retention) and learner performance and education outcomes (Hightower et al., 2011; UNESCO, 2014a). Examples of the consequences of poor school governance impacting negatively on learners include: teacher absenteeism and poor time-keeping; teachers offering uncontrolled private tuition as an alternative to carrying out their basic teaching duties, in order to supplement their income; and gender-based violence and other unprofessional behaviours. The 2013/14 EFA Global Monitoring Report reinforces the integration between school governance and the other teacher management dimensions presented in this chapter by identifying four strategies to improve governance: attract the best teachers; improve teacher education so all children can learn; get teachers where they are most needed; and provide incentives to retain the best teachers (UNESCO, 2014a: 266). Other keys to promoting governance include training school leadership and other stakeholders and holding them responsible for playing their roles effectively, and ensuring all those evolved in establishing and maintaining the material and cultural school environment recognize the key function this plays in promoting effective teaching and learning.

3.8.4 Quality assurance

3.9.1 School leadership