3.9.1 School leadership

The role of leadership in creating successful schools and promoting teacher governance is well documented (see, for example, Pont, Nusche, and Moorman, 2008; Hightower et al., 2011; UNESCO,2014a). Although there is increasing awareness of the need for effective recruitment and training of school leaders or principals (see Sections 3.1 and 3.2), many countries still lack strategies for identifying and preparing school leaders, who tend to be promoted from within the teaching staff and are expected to manage a school and its resources, both material and human, with little or poor preparation.

As explained in Section 3.2, school leaders are ultimately responsible for the education learners receive within the school, both directly in the classroom and indirectly in the communal areas of school assemblies and recreation grounds. They are also responsible for managing and supporting teaching and non-teaching staff, including monitoring teacher attendance and punctuality, as well as the material and moral environment of the school. The roles and responsibilities of school leaders include mentoring, supporting and counselling teachers; guiding learners; communicating and liaising with parents and guardians; managing the school finances and other administrative functions; and setting the tone, culture and ethos of the school. A teacher policy must enable head teachers to play this crucial role, with provisions to: identify, recruit and retain motivated, talented school leaders (see Section 3.1.6); ensure appropriate training (initial and CPD) for school leaders (see Section 3.2.10); and conduct regular evaluations/appraisals of school leaders (see Section 3.8.4).

3.9 School governance

3.9.2 Roles and responsibilities of other stakeholders