International standards
ILO/UNESCO. 1966. Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers. Geneva, International Labour Organization and Paris, UNESCO Publishing. sector/ Resources/ sectoral-standards/ WCMS_162034/ lang--en/ index.htm [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UIS. 2012. International Standard Classification of Education – ISCED 2011. Montreal, UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Education/ Documents/ isced-2011-en.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.).
Policy guidelines, manuals and programmes
Association for the Development of Education in Africa. 2011. Policy Frameworks on Contract Teachers. Tunis, Association for the Development of Education in Africa. adeaPortal/ includes/ publications/ PDF/ conferences_08_en.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. 2014. Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Melbourne, Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership. australian-professional-standards-for-teachers (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Council of Chief State School Officers. 2011. Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (InTASC) Model Core Teaching Standards: A Resource for State Dialogue. Washington, DC, Council of Chief State School Officers. Documents/ 2011/ InTASC_Model_Core_Teaching_Standards_2011.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Education Institute. 2007. National Professional Standards for Teachers and School Leaders. Doha, State of Qatar, Supreme Education Council, Education Institute. En/ SECInstitutes/ EducationInstitute/ Offices/ Documents/ NPSTSLE.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
European Commission. 2010. Developing Coherent and System-wide Induction Programmes for Beginner Teachers: A Handbook for Policy- makers. (European Commission Staff Working Document SEC (2010) 538 final.) Brussels, European Commission. education/ policy/ school/ doc/ handbook0410_en.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.).
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice). 2013. Key Data on Teachers and School Leaders in Europe. 2013 Edition. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. education/ eurydice/ documents/ key_data_series/ 151EN.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice (European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice). 2013. Supporting Teacher Educators for better learning outcomes. Brussels, European Commission. education/ policy/ school/ doc/ support-teacher-educators_en.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Gallie, M. and Keevy, J. 2014. Standards Framework for Teachers and School Leaders. London, Commonwealth Secretariat. docs/ papers/ 2014/ StandardsFramework.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
General Teaching Council, Scotland. 2012. Framework on Teacher Competence. Edinburgh, General Teaching Council. education/ policiesprocedures/ documents/ Framework%20on%20Teachers%20Competence.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Global Partnership for Education. 2014. Education Sector Analysis Methodological Guides. Vol. 1. Washington, DC, Global Partnership for Education (
ILO. 2012. Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva, International Labour Organization. sector/ Resources/ publications/ WCMS_187793/ lang--en/ index.htm (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
INEE. 2010. Minimum Standards for Education: Preparedness, Response, Recovery. (2nd edition.) New York, Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. eietrainingmodule/ cases/ learningistheirfuture/ pdf/ Minimum_Standards_English_2010.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
New South Wales Government. 2013. Great Teaching, Inspired Learning: A Blueprint for Action. Sydney, New South Wales Government. media/ downloads/ news/ greatteaching/ gtil_blueprint.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OECD. 2009. Improving School Leadership: The Toolkit. Paris, OECD Publishing. education/ school/ 44339174.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OREALC. 2011. Transforming Education: The Power of ICT Policies. UNESCO ICT Competency Framework for Teachers. Paris, UNESCO. images/ 0021/ 002118/ 211842e.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OREALC. 2014b. Green Schools Asia. Jakarta? UNESCO. pages/ about_project (Accessed 21 March 2015.) UNESCO/OREALC. 2013. Background and Criteria for Teacher Policy Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago, UNESCO/
Queensland College of Teachers 2012. Does Performance-based Pay Improve Teaching? PISA in Focus. (Policy Brief No. 16.) Paris, OECD Publishing. pisa/ pisaproducts/ pisainfocus/ 50328990.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Queensland College of Teachers . 2013. Returning to Teaching Fact Sheet. Brisbane, Queensland College of Teachers. Renewal/ RTTPrograms.html (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Queensland College of Teachers . 2014b. Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators. Paris, OECD Publishing. edu/ Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UK Parliament. 2010. Children, Schools and Family Select Committee. Report 4: Training of Teachers, Professional Development. London. pa/ cm200910/ cmselect/ cmchilsch/ 275/ 27510 (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UNESCO. 2010a. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues: Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TISSA) Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris, UNESCO. images/ 0019/ 001901/ 190129e.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
United Kingdom National College for Teaching and Leadership. 2014. Professional Development for School Leaders. London, United Kingdom National College for Teaching and Leadership. government/ collections/ professional-development-for-school-leaders (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
World Bank. 2013. What Matters Most for Teacher Policies: A Framework Paper. Washington, DC, World Bank. documents/ hdn/ ed/ saber/ supporting_doc/ Background/ TCH/ Framework_SABER-Teachers.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Research, reports, studies
Action Aid. 2007.Confronting the Contradictions: the IMF, Wage Bill Caps and the Case for Teachers. Johannesburg, Action Aid International. sites/ files/ actionaid/ aaconf_contradictions_final2.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Alcázar, L., Rogers, F. H., Chaudhury, N., Hammer, J., Kremer, M. and Muralidharan, K. 2006. Why Are Teachers Absent? Probing Service Delivery in Peruvian Primary Schools. International Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 45, pp. 117–36.
Asia Society. 2013. Teacher Quality: The 2013 International Summit on the Teaching Profession. New York, Asia Society. files/teachingsummit2013.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Association for the Development of Education in Africa.. 2008. Listening to Teachers: the Motivation and Morale of Education Workers in Mozambique. London, Voluntary Services Overseas. Images/ listening-to-teachers-mozambique_en_tcm76-22696.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Bennell, P. 2004. Teacher Motivation and Incentives in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Knowledge and Skills for Development. Brighton, Eldis. fulltext/ dfidtea.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Bennell, P. and Akyeampong, K. 2007. Teacher Motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Department for International Development Educational Papers. pdf/ outputs/ policystrategy/ researchingtheissuesno71.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Benveniste, L., Marshall, J. and Santibanez, L. 2008. Teaching in Lao PDR. Washington, DC, World Bank and Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic Ministry of Education.
Bhattacharjea, S., Wadhwa, W. and Banerji, R. 2011. Inside Primary Schools: A Study of Teaching and Learning in Rural India. Mumbai, Pratham Mumbai Education Initiative.
Bourdon, J., Frölich, M. and Michaelowa, K. 2010. Teacher Shortages, Teacher Contracts and Their Effect on Education in Africa. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A (Statistics in Society), Vol. 173, No. 1, pp. 93–116.
Centre of Study for Policies and Practices in Education. 2013. Learning Standards, Teaching Standards and Standards for School Principals: A Comparative Study. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 99. Paris, OECD Publishing. 10.1787/ 5k3tsjqtp90v-en (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Chang, M.C., Shaeffer, S., Al-Samarrai, S., Ragatz, A., de Ree, J., and Stevenson, R. 2014. Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making, Directions in Development. Washington, DC, World Bank. external/ default/ WDSContentServer/ WDSP/ IB/ 2013/ 12/ 05/ 000442464_2013120513023 9/ Rendered/ PDF/ 831520PUB0Teac00Box379886B00PUBLIC0.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Chaudhury, N., Hammer, J., Kremer, M., Muralidharan, K. and Rogers, F. H. 2006. Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 91–116.
Danaher, P.A. and Umar, A. (Eds). 2010. Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning, Commonwealth of Learning Perspectives on Distance Education. Vancouver, Commonwealth of Learning. filestore/ Resources/ Reports/ PERSPECTIVESONDISTANCEEDUCATION-TeacherEducationthrough.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Darling-Hammond, L. 2012a. Creating a Comprehensive System for Evaluating and Supporting Effective Teaching. Stanford, CA, Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education. sites/ default/ files/ publications/ creating-comprehensive-system-evaluating-and-supporting-effective-teaching_1.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Darling-Hammond, L. . 2012b. The Right Start: Creating a Strong Foundation for the Teaching Career. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 94, No., pp. 8–13.
Darling-Hammond, L. 2000. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 8, No. 1.
Darling-Hammond, L. 2001. Standard Setting in Teaching: Changes in Licensing, Certification, and Assessment. V. Richardson (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching, 4th Edition, pp. 751–776 Washington, DC, American Educational Research Association..
Darling-Hammond, L. 2006. Constructing 21st Century Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 57, No. 10, pp. 1–15. wp-content/ uploads/ 2010/ 12/ Constructing-21st-Century-Tchr-Ed.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Duflo, E., Dupas, P. and Kremer, M. 2012. School Governance, Teacher Incentives, and Pupil-teacher Ratios: Experimental Evidence from Kenyan Primary Schools. NBER Working Paper, 17939. Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Duthilleul, Y, 2005. Lessons Learnt in the Use of “Contract” Teachers – Synthesis Report. Paris, UNESCO-IIEP. iiep/ PDF/ pubs/ N42.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Fyfe, A. 2007. The Use of Contract Teachers in Developing Countries: Trends and Impact. Sectoral Activities Working Paper 252. Geneva, ILO. sector/ Resources/ publications/ WCMS_160813/ lang--en/ index (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Fyle, C.O. 2013. Teacher Education MOOCs for Developing World Contexts: Issues and Design Considerations. Paper delivered at the 9th International Conference of MIT’s Learning International Networks Consortium. linc2013/ proceedings/ Session3/ Session3Fyle.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Global Partnership for Education. 2005. Education for All Fast Track Initiative Endorsement Report Lesotho. Washington, DC, Global Partnership for Education. content/ education-all-fast-track-initiative-endorsement-report-lesotho (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Harris, D. 2007. The Promises and Pitfalls of Alternative Teacher Compensation Approaches. Phoenix, AZ, EPRU and Boulder, CO, EPIC. files/ EPSL-0704-231-EPRU.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Harris, R. 2009. Capacity Building for Sustainable Development: Teaching Assistants –At School. 2009/ 05/ 29/ teaching-assistants-at-school (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Hayes, T. 2006. Professional Teaching Associations and Professional Standards: Embedding Standards in the ‘Discourse of the Profession.’ Acton, ACT, Teaching Australia. docs/ default-source/ default-document-library/ professional_teaching_associations_and_professional_standards_-_embedding_standards_in_the_discourse_of_the_profession (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Hightower, A.M., Delgado, R. C., Lloyd, S. C., Wittenstein, R., Sellers, K., and Swanson, C. B. 2011. Improving Student Learning by Supporting Quality Teaching: Key Issues, Effective Strategies. Bethesda, Editorial Projects in Education, Inc. media/ eperc_qualityteaching_12.11.pdf
Humana People to People. 2013. Teacher Training. Humana People to People. (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
IICD. 2007. ICTs for Education: Impact and Lessons Learned from IICD-supported Activities. The Hague, International Institute for Communication and Development. about/ publications/ icts-for-education-impact-and-lessons-learned-from-iicd-supported-activities (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Ingvarson, L. 2012. Standards for Graduation and Initial Teacher Certification: the international experience. Australian Council for Educational Research. lawrence_ingvarson1/ 206 (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Ingvarson, L., Kleinhenz, E and Wilkinson, J. 2007. Research on Performance Pay for Teachers. Victoria, Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd. cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=1000andcontext=workforce
International Task Force on Teachers for Education for All. 2011. Developing and Implementing Comprehensive National Policies for EFA: Teacher Quality and Equity. (Final Report. Third International Policy Dialogue Forum, 13–14 September 2011, Bali, Indonesia.) v2/ phocadownload/ ipdf/ finalreport3pdf.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Kessler, I. 2005. Remuneration Systems. S. Bach (ed.), Managing Human Resources. Fourth edition. Oxford, Blackwell.
Kingdon, G.G. 2006. Teacher characteristics and student performance in India: a pupil fixed effects approach. Global Poverty Research Group Working Paper 59, 2006. 14026/ 1/ gprg-wps-059.pdf
Kingdon, G.G., et al. 2013. Are Contract Teachers and Para-teachers A Cost-effective Intervention to Address Teacher Shortage and Improve Learning Outcomes? London, EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London. pdf/ outputs/ systematicreviews/ Parateachers2013Kingdon.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Latchem, C. 2010. Using ICT to Train Teachers in ICT. P.A. Danaher and A. Umar (eds.), Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning. Vancouver, Commonwealth of Learning, pp. 75–91. PublicationDocuments/ pub_PS_TeacherEd_web.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Mayes, A. S. and Burgess, H. 2010. Open and Distance Learning for Initial Teacher Education. P. A. Danaher and A. Umar (eds.), Teacher Education through Open and Distance Learning. Vancouver, Commonwealth of Learning, pp. 35–46. PublicationDocuments/ pub_PS_TeacherEd_web.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Moon, B. 2013. The Management of Teacher Education – Trends in Policies and Practice: What Works, Why and for Whom? 6th Policy Dialogue Forum of the International Task Force on Teachers for EFA. Kinshasa, DRC. 27–28 November 2013. Paris, UNESCO. v2/ phocadownload/ 6pdf/ report6thpdf-kinshasa.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Mulkeen, A. 2010. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in Teacher Supply, Training and Management. Washington, World Bank. bitstream/ handle/ 10986/ 13545/ 52278.pdf?sequence=1 (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Mulkeen, A. and D. Chen (eds). 2008. Teachers for Rural Schools: Experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. Washington, DC,World Bank. INTAFRREGTOPEDUCATION/ Resources/ 444659-1212165766431/ ED_Teachers_rural_schools_L_M_M_T_U.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Naylor, R. and Sayed, Y. 2014. Teacher Quality: Evidence Review. Canberra, Office of Development Effectiveness, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. current_work/ documents/ evidence-review-teacher-quality.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OECD 2013c. Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment in Education. Paris, OECD Publishing.
OECD. 2005. Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing and Retaining Effective Teachers. Paris, OECD Publishing. edu/ school/ attractingdevelopingandretainingeffectiveteachers-homepage.htm (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OECD. 2005/2008. Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action. Paris, OECD Publishing. dac/ effectiveness/ parisdeclarationandaccraagendaforaction.htm . (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
OECD. 2013a. PISA 2012 Results: What Makes Schools Successful? Resources, Policies and Practices. Vol. 4, PISA. Paris, OECD Publishing.
OECD. 2013b. Teachers for the 21st Century: Using Evaluation to Improve Teaching. Paris, OECD Publishing.
OECD. 2014a.Talis 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning. Paris, TALIS, OECD Publishing. 10.1787/ 9789264196261-en
OECD. 2014b. Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators. Paris, OECD Publishing. edu/ Education-at-a-Glance-2014.pdf
Osborne, A.G. and Russo, C.J. 2011. The Legal Rights and Responsibilities of Teachers. Thousand Oaks, CA, Corwin Press.
Pont, B., Nusche, D., and Moorman, H. 2008. Improving School Leadership, Vol. 1. Paris, OECD Publishing. education/ school/ 44374889.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Rizza, C. 2011. ICT and Initial Teacher Education: National Policies. OECD Directorate for Education Working Paper, No 61. Paris. officialdocuments/ publicdisplaydocumentpdf/ ?cote=EDU/ WKP%282011%291anddocLanguage=En (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Sayed, Y. 2009. Teacher Professional development: Lessons and Experiences. In Proceedings of the 2nd National Continuing Professional Development Education Conference. Namibia, NIED.
Sayed, Y. and Ahmed, R. 2014. Education Quality, and Teaching and Learning in the Post-2015 Education Agenda. International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 40. science/ (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Schwille, J., Dembélé, M. and Schubert, J. 2007. Global perspectives on teacher learning: improving policy and practice. Paris, IIEP UNESCO: images/ 0015/ 001502/ 150261e.pdf (Accessed 14 January 2015.)
Senou, B. M. 2008. Contractualisation de la fonction enseignante et comportement des maîtres au primaire: cas du Bénin. Unpublished.
Smith, T. M. and Ingersoll, R. M. 2004. What Are the Effects of Induction and Mentoring on Beginning Teacher Turnover? American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 681–714.
Spreen, C.A., and Fancsali, C. 2005. What Can We Learn about Improving Teaching and Learning from Comparing Policies across Countries? A Study of Student Achievement and Teacher Quality in Southern Africa. Paper from the 2005 International Invitational Educational Policy Research Conference.
Steiner, L. 2010. Using Competency-Based Evaluation to Drive Teacher Excellence. Chapel Hill, NC, Public Impact. images/ stories/ singapore_lessons_2010.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Steiner-Khamsi, G., Harris-Van Keuren, C., Silova, I. and Chachkhiani, K. 2008. Decentralization and Recentralization Reforms: Their Impact on Teacher Salaries in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Mongolia. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2009, Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance Matters. Paris, UNESCO. images/ 0017/ 001780/ 178023e.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Tayyaba, S. 2012. Rural–urban Gaps in Academic Achievement, Schooling Conditions, Student, and Teachers’Characteristics in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 6–26.
UNESCO 2010c. Education under Attack. Paris, UNESCO. images/ 0018/ 001868/ 186809e.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UNESCO 2014a. Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All – EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2013/14. Paris, UNESCO. new/ en/ education/ themes/ leading-the-international-agenda/ efareport/ reports (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UNESCO. 2010b. Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future. Multi-media teacher education programme. education/ tlsf/ mods/ theme_gs/ mod0a.html (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UNESCO. 2010d. Reaching the Marginalized. EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2010. Oxford, Oxford University Press and Paris, UNESCO. new/ en/ education/ themes/ leading-the-international-agenda/ efareport/ reports/ 2010- marginalization/ . (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
UNESCO. 2013. Case Studies on Integrating ICT into Teacher Education Curriculum in Asia. Bangkok, UNESCO. images/ 0022/ 002235/ 223520e.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Vasquez Heilig, J. and Jez, S. J. 2014. Teach For America: A Return to the Evidence. Boulder, CO, National Education Policy Center. publication/ teach-for-america-return (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Voluntary Services Overseas. 2002. What Makes Teachers Tick? A Policy Research Report on Teachers’ Motivation in Developing Countries. London, Voluntary Services Overseas. images/ What_Makes_Teachers_Tick_tcm76-21000.pdf (Accessed 21 March 2015.)
Yaoundé, Université de Yaoundé II-SOA.

The cultural environment