As mentioned in Phase 1 above, policy options are developed to fit particular social, political, economic and cultural contexts. They therefore require a needs analysis to examine the situation systematically, recommend the issues for immediate attention and determine ways of addressing them. Policy options should be costed, and consideration should be given to which policy instruments – legislation, programmes, or regulations – are most appropriate.
An important activity during this phase is a comprehensive situation analysis on teachers in the particular country, including those aspects impacting on teacher effectiveness, attrition and shortage. In post-conflict and post-disaster contexts, particular attention should be paid to key aspects such as teacher supply and deployment, as well as teachers’ role as agents of peace-building, reconciliation and disaster preparedness. Research is a key component of such a situation analysis, to identify the facts and those measures that are considered successful. Chapter 3 provides a synthesis and evidence of some of the main aspects.
Policy work in this phase should enable policy-makers to make informed decisions about the policy changes required to address the identified problem. It is likely that in the course of developing policy options, previously identified problems may change and new problems will be identified.
4.1.3 Phase 2: Policy formulation – analysis, principles and options/choices
Agreeing on principles during policy formulation