Immunization Module: Vaccine Preparation and Administration Routes of the EPI Vaccines
Study Session 4 Vaccine Preparation and Administration Routes of the EPI Vaccines
In this study session you will learn how to prepare the EPI vaccines used in Ethiopia, which were described in Study Sessions 2 and 3. Some vaccines come as fully prepared liquids for injection or administering by drops into the mouth. Other vaccines comes as powders that have to be reconstituted — mixed with a special liquid (a diluent) before they can be used. We will teach you how to do this and about the safe handling of needles and syringes for injecting vaccines.
Appropriate vaccine administration and safe vaccination practices are both very important for vaccine effectiveness. The recommended site, route and dosage for each vaccine are based on research and practical experience. In the final sections of this study session you will learn about the correct routes of administration for each of the EPI vaccines, together with instructions for positioning the child or adult client. The four administration routes are:
- Intradermal (ID): the vaccine is injected into the top layers of the skin.
- Subcutaneous (SC): the vaccine is injected into the fatty tissue below the skin and above the muscle.
- Intramuscular (IM): the vaccine is injected into the muscle.
- Oral: the vaccine is given by drops into the mouth.
Learning Outcomes for Study Session 4