Summary of Study Session 4
In Study Session 4, you have learned that:
- Correct preparation before giving an immunization is very important to minimise the risk of infection or injury to yourself, your clients or their caregivers, and to maintain the effectiveness of the vaccine during transfer from the manufacturer’s vial to the syringe and finally to the client.
- Correct vaccine preparation includes using standard procedures (hand washing, skin preparation using antiseptics, etc.), selection of an appropriate syringe and needle, inspection of vials and ampoules to check the expiry date and vaccine vial monitors (VVMs) to ensure that vaccines and diluents are in good condition, vaccine reconstitution for those vaccines that require it, and keeping vaccines cold during the immunization session.
- Always use the appropriate diluents provided specifically for the reconstitution of BCG or measles vaccines before use. Never use sterile normal saline or sterile water as a substitute for the correct diluent.
- The injectable EPI vaccines are each given by a specific route and site: BCG vaccine is injected intradermally into the upper right arm; measles vaccine is injected subcutaneously into the upper arm; pentavalent vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine (PCV10) are injected intramuscularly into opposite upper thigh muscles; tetanus toxoid vaccine is injected intramuscularly into the woman’s upper arm.
- Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is given by two drops into the infant’s mouth. Rotavirus vaccine (RotarixTM) is given as 1.5 ml of drops into the infant’s mouth.