Health, Sports & Psychology

The importance of person-centred approaches to nursing care

Updated Friday 15th March 2013

Professor Jan Draper and Dr Josie Tetley explain why getting to know the person behind the patient is the raison d'être of person-centred nursing care.

British nurse taking older man's blood pressure in nurse's office Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Monkey Business Images | Dreamstime.com

Forging relationships

We all can probably recount our personal experiences of receiving some form of nursing care. This might have been as a patient in hospital, in a community or doctor’s clinic or in some other kind of health service provision. The personal relationships we formed with the nurses responsible for our care will have been important to us. For all patients, and their families, the relationships forged with nurses and other carers are central to the quality of their healthcare experience. The quality of these relationships is singled out in patient satisfaction surveys as being of particular importance. To engage successfully with their patients, nurses need to listen carefully, and to get to know their patients as people. Getting to know the person behind the patient is the raison d'être of person-centred nursing care.

So what is person-centred nursing?

A person-centred approach to nursing focuses on the individual’s personal needs, wants, desires and goals so that they become central to the care and nursing process. This can mean putting the person’s needs, as they define them, above those identified as priorities by healthcare professionals. In the words of Bob Price, a nurse academic writing for the Nursing Standard in 2006, ‘the term person-centred care is used…to indicate a strong interest in the patient’s own experience of health, illness, injury or need. It infers that the nurse works with the person’s definition of the situation, as well as that presented through a medical or other diagnosis’.

There are a number of different frameworks that have been developed by nurse academics to help practising nurses implement person-centred care. While these frameworks are all slightly different, they all share some key components:

  • knowing the patient as an individual
  • being responsive
  • providing care that is meaningful
  • respecting the individual’s values, preferences and needs
  • fostering trusting caregiving relationships
  • emphasising freedom of choice
  • promoting physical and emotional comfort
  • involving the person’s family and friends, as appropriate.

This model of nursing care contrasts with a more frequent approach called ‘patient-centred’ nursing. This focuses on the person as a patient, emphasising medical diagnosis and the identification of nursing problems. Personal needs may be acknowledged but only in as much as they relate to overall medical and nursing needs. In practice, this means that medical and nursing care needs take priority over other personal and, perhaps undeclared, needs of the person receiving care.

Files with a tab that says my life Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Cammeraydave | Dreamstime.com

The importance of life stories

In order to achieve care that is person-centred, nurses need to understand the biographies of their patients and their relatives. Paying attention to the life stories and experiences of patients is the only way nurses will get to know their patients and their aspirations for the future. Achieving this can be challenging, as it requires time to listen and talk. Furthermore, the organisation of care, particularly in hospital settings, sometimes means that the focus is on ‘getting the job done’ rather than focusing on the importance of the individual’s needs and wants.

We care

Moving forward, adopting truly person-centred care is a key objective for the nursing profession. To achieve this nurses need the right level of knowledge, skills and experience. At The Open University, we have argued that the move to an all graduate profession is a step in the right direction, as this will better equip nurses to respond to the increasingly complex care situations in which they practice. While there have been some recent examples of the way in which nursing has struggled to meet some of the essential care needs of patients, the reasons for this are often quite complex and are not just simply because nurses don’t care. So in addition to graduate education, supportive working environments, with appropriate nurse/patient ratios and good leadership are all important factors in ensuring person-centred nursing practice.

References

  • Price, B. (2006) Exploring person-centred care, Nursing Standard, 20 (50), pp.49-56.
  • Tetley, J. and Draper, J. (in press) ‘Slaying the myth’ of the over-qualified nurse: The graduate nurse and older people, International Journal of Older People
 

For further information, take a look at our frequently asked questions which may give you the support you need.

Have a question?

Other content you may like

Can everyone take control? Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Ricochet - BBC article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Can everyone take control?

Is it possible for everyone with a disability to take control of their care?

Article
Hospitals to homes Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: BBC article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Hospitals to homes

This extract from Care Welfare and Community Workbook 4: Resourcing Care explores why the 1990s saw a move to shift elderly patients from hospitals to social care

Article
Mental health practice: Bonnyrigg Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Used with permission free course icon Level 1 icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Mental health practice: Bonnyrigg

Although society's attitude toward mental illness has improved, discrimination and misconceptions surrounding those affected are still prevalent. This free course, Mental health practice: Bonnyrigg, explores a number of issues relating to mental health practice, including the difference between mental health and mental illness, and the discrimination that can arise when people experience some form of mental distress.

Free course
10 hrs
The limits of primary care Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Used with permission free course icon Level 1 icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

The limits of primary care

In this free course, The limits of primary care, we explore questions of access to community services. To make what might be quite a dry task more challenging we use a fictionalised case study of two people for whom access to community services is particularly problematic. Jim and Marianne are both long-term heroin addicts. Additional problems associated with their addiction are homelessness and physical illness. Their situation raises both practical questions, about how services can be accessed, and moral questions, about entitlement to resources when their problems can be regarded as at least in part self-inflicted.

Free course
4 hrs
What's it like being a nurse in the cancer field? Creative commons image Icon The Open University under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 4.0 license video icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

What's it like being a nurse in the cancer field?

Watch these short videos where Open University graduates Anne Hampton and Vikkie Allan tell us what their roles in medical oncology and endoscopy are like and how they help people with cancer.

Video
10 mins
Is mental health care a family affair? Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Solarseven | Dreamstime.com article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Is mental health care a family affair?

Lecturer in Mental Health Nursing John Rowe explores the concept of carer-centred practice.

Article
What is it like for a doctor to pronounce a patient dead? Copyright free image Icon Copyright free: Darko Stojanovic article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

What is it like for a doctor to pronounce a patient dead?

First year resident Shara Yurkiewicz shares her experience of performing the last task for a patient.

Article
Student nurses’ experiences of becoming a registered nurse Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Bobby Flowers | Dreamstime.com article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Student nurses’ experiences of becoming a registered nurse

How and why does pre-registration nurse education play a crucial role in ensuring patients and their families receive high-quality nursing care?

Article
Can the NHS solve its bullying problem? Copyrighted image Icon Copyright: Foreground: Nikolay Mamluke | Dreamstime.com / Background Parentingupstream article icon

Health, Sports & Psychology 

Can the NHS solve its bullying problem?

The NHS has a serious problem with bullying at work. What can be done to solve it? (The advice could work in other workplaces, too...)

Article