English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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English: skills for learning

6 Hedging

Hedging is a further key part of academic style. It means using ‘cautious’ language. This is because academics have to be cautious when making statements as there may not always be enough evidence to be certain about something that their research findings seem to indicate.

Consider the following three sentences:

  • Languages are always associated with cultural, social and political issues, which are in tension with one another.
  • It is often the case that languages are associated with cultural, social and political issues, some of which are in tension with one another.
  • Sanders (2013, p. 34) found that the English language is often associated with social and political issues, which may be in tension with one another.

The first sentence indicates that an association always exists and suggests that all issues are contrasting. This is a very general statement that could be proven wrong as there may not be enough evidence to prove that this is always the case.

The second sentence is more cautious and uses ‘hedging’ expressions such as ‘often’ and ‘some’ to acknowledge that some languages may not be associated with these issues and that, in any case, these are not always in tension with one another.

The third sentence is less general as it focuses more specifically on the English language. It also supports the statement with reference to research. It uses the words ‘often’ and ‘some’ to indicate that there is no absolute certainty.

The most common words used to hedge are shown in Table 8.

Table 8 Common hedging words

Verbs Adverbs Adjectives Phrases





seem to

appear to

tend to

seem to




in general













to a great extent

it would appear

it is often the case

Activity 11

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