The psychology of cybercrime
The psychology of cybercrime

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.

References

Action Fraud (2018) 419 emails and letters. Available at: https://www.actionfraud.police.uk/ a-z-of-fraud/ 419-emails-and-letters [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Aransiola, J. O. and Asindemade, S. O. (2011) ‘Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, pp. 759−763.
Bates, S. (2017) ‘Revenge porn and mental health: A qualitative analysis of the mental health effects of revenge porn on female survivors,’ Feminist Criminology, 12(1), pp. 22−42.
BBC News (2011) ‘Who, What, Why: Can phone hackers still access messages?’, BBC News 6 July. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/ magazine-14044499 (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
BBC News (2014) ‘Hacking Trial: the verdicts’, BBC News 4 July. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/ news/ uk-27145187 (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Bishop, J. (2014) ‘Representations of ‘trolls’ in mass media communication: a review of media-texts and moral panics relating to ‘internet trolling’, International Journal of Web Based Communities, 10(1), pp. 7-24.
Buchanan, T. and Whitty, M. T. (2014) ‘The online dating romance scam: causes and consequences of victimhood’, Psychology, Crime and Law, 20(3), pp.261–283.
Buckels, E. E., Trapnell, P. D. and Paulhus, D. L. (2014). ‘Trolls just want to have fun’ Personality and individual Differences, 67, pp. 97–102.
Button, M., Lewis, C. and Tapley, J. (2009) Fraud typologies and the victims of fraud literature review. London, National Fraud Authority.
Button, M., Lewis, C. and Tapley, J. (2014) ‘Not a victimless crime: The impact of fraud on individual victims and their families’, Security Journal, 27(1), pp. 36−54.
Canter, D. and Youngs, D. (2009) Investigative Psychology: Offender Profiling and the Analysis of Criminal Action, Chichester, Wiley.
Coles, B. A. and West, M. (2016) ‘Trolling the trolls: Online forum users constructions of the nature and properties of trolling’, Computers in Human Behavior, 60, pp. 233–244.
Conklin, A., Dietrich, G. and Walz, D. (2004) ‘Password-based Authentication: A System Perspective’, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1−10.
Cooper, K., Quayle, E., Jonsson, L. and Göran Svedin, C. (2016) ‘Adolescents and self-taken sexual images: A review of the literature’, Computers in Human Behavior, 55, Part B, pp. 706−716.
Cross, C. (2015). ‘No laughing matter: Blaming the victim of online fraud’, International Review of Victimology, 21(2), pp. 187–204.
Dreßing, H., Bailer, J., Anders, A., Wagner, H. and Gallas, C. (2014) ‘Cyberstalking in a large sample of social network users: Prevalence, characteristics, and impact upon victims’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(2), pp. 61–67.
Fichman, P. and Sanfilippo, M.R. (2016). ‘Online trolling and its perpetrators: Under the cyberbridge’. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield.
Fogarty, P. (2019) ‘ What is tattle life? Harmless forum or hotbed of harassement?’ Available at: https://www.hitc.com/ en-gb/ 2019/ 06/ 27/ what-is-tattle-life-mrs-meldrum-harassment-bullying-petition/ (Accessed: 04 November 2020)
Gehringer. E. F. (2002) ‘Choosing passwords: security and human factors’, 2002 International Symposium on Technology and Society, pp. 369−373.
Gray, J. M. (2015) ‘What constitutes a “reasonable belief in consent” to sex? A thematic analysis’, Journal of Sexual Aggression, 21(3), pp. 337−353.
Henry, N., Powell, A., & Flynn, A. L. G. (2017). Not Just ‘Revenge Pornography’: Australians’ Experiences of Image-Based Abuse: A Summary Report, RMIT University. Available at: https://researchmgt.monash.edu/ ws/ portalfiles/ portal/ 214045352/ revenge_porn_report_2017.pdf (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Herring, S., Job-Sluder, K., Scheckler, R. and Barab, S. (2002) ‘Searching for safety online: Managing “trolling” in a feminist forum’, The Information Society, 18, pp. 371–384.
Kashner, S. (2014) ‘Both Huntress and Prey’, Vanity Fair, 20 October. Available at: https://archive.vanityfair.com/ article/ 2014/ 11/ both-huntress-and-prey (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
How People Use the Internet in 2020 (2020). How people use the internet in 2020. Available at: https://www.broadbandsearch.net/ blog/ most-common-uses-internet-daily-life (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Kirwan, G. and Power, A. (2013) ‘Cyberbullying and Cyberstalking’, in Kirwan, G. and Power, A. Cybercrime: The Psychology of Online Offenders, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 147–168.
Låftman, S. B., Modin, B. and Östberg, V. (2013) ‘Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden’, Children and Youth Services Review, 35, pp. 112–119.
Langos, C. (2015) ‘Cyberbullying: The shades of harm’ Psychiatry, psychology and law, 22(1), pp.106–123.
Lerner, M. J. (1980) The Belief in a Just World: A Fundamental Delusion, New York, Plenum Press.
Mackie , J. (2014) ‘Jennifer Lawrence’s nude photo leak is not a sex crime, however much she’d like it to be’, The Independent, 10 October. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/ voices/ comment/ jennifer-lawrences-nude-photo-leak-was-a-scandal-but-legally-speaking-it-was-not-a-sex-crime-9786886.html (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
McGlynn, C., Rackley, E. and Houghton, R. (2017) ‘Beyond ‘revenge porn’: The continuum of image-based sexual abuse’ Feminist Legal Studies, 25(1), pp. 25–46.
Mendelsohn, B. (1956) ‘The Victimology’, Etudes Internationales de Psycho-Sociologie Criminelle, 3, pp. 25–26 (in French).
Morgan (2017) ‘Announcing our Worst Passwords of 2016’, TeamsID [Online]. Available at: https://www.teamsid.com/ worst-passwords-2016/ (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Naughton, J. (2016). ‘The evolution of the internet: from military experiment to general purpose technology’, Journal of Cyber Policy, vol.35, no. 1, pp.5-28.
Nigam, S. (2018) ‘Revenge Porn Laws across the World’, The Centre for Internet and Society [Online] Available at: https://cis-india.org/internet-governance/blog/revenge-porn-laws-across-the-world (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Nuccitelli, M (n.d.) 130+ types of internet trolls and online provocateurs. Available at: https://www.ipredator.co/ troll/ (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Ofcom (2020). Adult’s media use and attitudes 2020. Available at: https://www.ofcom.org.uk/ __data/ assets/ pdf_file/ 0031/ 196375/ adults-media-use-and-attitudes-2020-report.pdf (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Oppenheim, M. (2017) ‘Jennifer Lawrence addresses nude photo hack: “It was so unbelievably violating”’, The Guardian, 21 November. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/ arts-entertainment/ films/ news/ jennifer-lawrence-nude-photo-hack-pictures-video-leak-celebrity-addresses-issue-violating-a8067121.html (Accessed: 04 November 2020).
Rege, A. (2009) ‘What's love got to do with it? Exploring online dating scams and identity fraud’, International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 3, pp. 494−512.
Samimi, P. and Alderson, K. (2014) ‘Sexting among undergraduate students’, Computers in Human Behavior, 31, pp. 230−241.
Schneider, S. K., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A. and Coulter, R. (2012) ‘Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students’, American Journal of Public Health, 102, pp. 171–177.
Shachaf, P. and Hara, N. (2010) ‘Beyond vandalism: Wikipedia trolls’, Journal of Information Science, 36(3), pp. 357–370.
Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S. and Tippett, N. (2008) ‘Cyberbullying: its nature and impact in secondary school pupils’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), pp. 376–385.
Schneider, S. K., O’Donnell, L., Stueve, A. and Coulter, R. (2012) ‘Cyberbullying, school bullying, and psychological distress: A regional census of high school students’, American Journal of Public Health, 102, pp. 171–177.
Sourander, A., Brunstein Klomek, A., Ikonen, M., Lindroos, J., Luntamo, T., Koskelainen, M., Ristkari, T. and Helenius, H. (2010) ‘Psychosocial risk factors associated with cyberbullying among adolescents: A population-based study’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(7), pp. 720–728.
Tam, L., Glassman, M. and Vanderwauver, M. (2009) ‘The psychology of password management: a tradeoff between security and convenience’, Behaviour & Information Technology, 29(3), pp. 233−244.
Whitty, M. T. and Buchanan, T. (2012) ‘The online dating romance scam: A serious cybercrime’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(3), pp. 181−183.
Whitty, M.T. and Buchanan, T. (2016) ‘The online dating romance scam: The psychological impact on victims – both financial and non-financial’, Criminology & Criminal Justice, 16(2), pp. 176−194.
Williams, M. L., & Levi, M. (2017). ‘Cybercrime prevention’. In N. Tilley & A. Sidebottom (Eds.), Handbook of crime prevention and community safety (pp. 454−469). London: Routledge.
Youngs, D., Ioannou, M. and Eagles, J. (2016) ‘Expressive and instrumental offending: Reconciling the paradox of specialisation and versatility’, International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(4), pp. 397–422.

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371