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The many guises of the emperor Augustus
The many guises of the emperor Augustus

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religious official who observed natural signs, such as the behaviour of birds, and interpreted these in terms of indicating the will of the gods
the straight edge of the toga; in the Augustan toga it was the edge that was folded
a hill in central Rome that housed central Roman institutions, including the Temple of Jupiter
civil war
war between factions within a country, rather than between countries
queen of Egypt from 51 to 30 BCE
the set of principles and rules by which a country is organised and governed; often written down in a document (e.g. USA)
constitutional monarchy
a country that has a king or queen, but their role is limited in a constitution, allowing for other governing bodies as well, like a parliament (e.g. UK).
the idea that all people are equal in the eyes of the law and deserve equal rights.
members of the equestrian order; the equestrian order or ordo equester, was an official rank in Roman society above the plebs but below the senatorial order. You had to have a certain amount of money/property to enter it.
the Gauls
(Latin: Gallia) a region of the Roman Empire roughly equivalent to modern France and made up of several provinces: Gallia Narbonensis, Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Aquitania and Gallia Belgica
Julius Caesar
a statesman of the late Republic who was popular with the Roman people but who fell out with the senate for seizing ever more dominance and ignoring the balance of power in the Roman Republic. He was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 BCE.
the two corners of the toga where the curved hem meets the balteus
magistrates were Roman officials of the senatorial order who were elected by the people’s assembly for a set period of time and charged with a certain field of activity (e.g. finances, infrastructure). The job was called a magistracy. There is some resemblance to ministers or secretaries of state in modern Britain.
Mark Antony
Roman politician, general and ally of Julius Caesar who ended up being defeated, along with his lover Cleopatra, by Augustus at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE
a country where a king or queen is head of state
mos maiorum
the ‘ways of the ancestors’; what people considered to be the traditions of Rome’s forefathers, such as modesty, civil duty, courage, simplicity etc. These were held in high esteem by large sections of the Roman population.
the cloak of Roman generals – large, rectangular, of thinner fabric than the sagum and draped around the body rather than fastened with a brooch
Pax Augusta
the peace brought by the rule of Augustus; a reference to Augustus ending the civil wars, but also eventually extended to mean the peace brought to places conquered by Rome (not that those who were conquered would necessarily have seen it that way!)
people’s assembly
a general assembly of citizens for discussion and decision-making, often by vote. In the Roman Republic, the people’s assembly could be attended by any adult male who was a full Roman citizen.
the general body of free Roman citizens who were not equestrians or senators, similar to ‘commoners‘ in modern Britain
pontifex maximus
‘supreme priest’; the chief high priest in ancient Rome
region conquered by Rome and turned into administrative units with their own governor and capital city.
a state in which supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives, rather than a monarch
The (Roman) Republic
a form of government of Rome in which it was run through a constitution consisting of a senate, a people’s assembly and a set of magistracies. It is also the name given to the period of Roman history in which this form of government held sway.
someone who is in favour of a republic as a form of government
the rectangular cloak of the ordinary Roman soldier, usually draped around the shoulders and fastened on the left shoulder with a brooch
an assembly of political representatives
The (Roman) senate
the assembly of Roman aristocrats (senators) which discussed and decided on matters of state
members of the senatorial order; the senatorial order or ordo senatorius, was the highest official rank in Roman society; it came above the equestrian order, and you had to have even more money/property to enter it than the equestrian order. Only people in this group were allowed to attend the senate.
(Latin: sestertius) an ancient Roman coin and monetary unit
the Spains
(Latin: Hispaniae) a region of the Roman Empire roughly equivalent to modern Spain and made up of several provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Lusitania and Hispania Tarraconensis
people who are ruled by a monarch (i.e. king or queen)
theatre of Pompey
the first stone-built theatre in central Rome built by Pompey in 55 BCE
the part of the toga pulled up over the balteus on the Augustan toga to form a small pouch
(Latin: atrium )entrance hall of a house