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English: skills for learning
English: skills for learning

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5.1 Writing cause–effect sentences

In the next activity, you will practise combining causes and effects into sentences using connectives.

Activity 9

Timing: Allow approximately 10 minutes

The following table shows some examples of the connectives that can be used to join cause and effect.

Table 4 Examples of connectives
Cause connectivesEffect connectivesNouns for cause and effectVerbs for cause and effect
due tosoinfluenceinfluence
sinceas a result (of)effectaffect
because (of)thereforefactorcause
ifthusconsequencelead to
henceimpactresulted in
consequently
accordingly

The causes below contain information on how schools are intervening in the health of children. Alongside them are some of the effects that these interventions are having.

Combine each pair of cause and effect to make complete sentences, using some of the connectives given in the table to help you join them together. Type your combined sentences in the response boxes. Note, too, whether you choose to have the cause or the effect first in a sentence, and how this affects your choice of connective.

1.CauseEffect
Children in many schools have a greater variety of sports and exercise options than in the past More healthy children
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Answer

Because children in many schools have a greater variety of sports and exercise options than in the past, there are now more healthy children.

2.CauseEffect
National Curriculum means less room for subjects like cookery and home economicsLess practical experience for children in nutrition, food handling and preparation – widely regarded as skills essential for healthy living
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Answer

The National Curriculum has meant less room for subjects like cookery and home economics, which has resulted in less practical experience for children in nutrition, food handling and preparation. These skills are widely regarded as essential for healthy living.

3.CauseEffect
The National Curriculum places a heavier workload on childrenLess time available for play and exercise
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Answer

Due to the National Curriculum placing a heavier workload on children, they now have less time available for play and exercise.

4.CauseEffect
Education authorities given the right to sell off playing fieldsMore than 6000 sites have been sold
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Answer

Education authorities were given the right to sell off playing fields. Consequently, more than 6000 sites have been sold.

5.CauseEffect
Companies ‘donate’ equipment in exchange for vouchers that people collect by buying their productsChildren eat more chocolate. An estimated 5440 chocolate bars, containing over 33 kg of fat and more than a million calories, would need to be eaten to get the most expensive item on offer
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Answer

The effect of companies ‘donating’ equipment in exchange for vouchers that people collect by buying their products is that children eat more chocolate. An estimated 5440 chocolate bars, containing over 33 kg of fat and more than a million calories, would need to be eaten to get the most expensive item on offer.

6.CauseEffect
Telephone companies put up phone masts on or near school premisesFears that electromagnetic fields from the masts may pose a health risk
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Answer

There are fears that the electromagnetic fields caused by mobile phone masts that have been put up by telephone companies on or near school premises may pose a health risk.

7.CauseEffect
Vending machines selling ‘junk’ food installed in UK schoolsChildren consume more high-calorie drinks and junk food – reinforcing unhealthy eating patterns
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Answer

Since vending machines that sell ‘junk’ food have been installed in UK schools, children are consuming more high-calorie drinks and junk food. This is reinforcing unhealthy eating patterns.

Comment

Your answers may differ from the ones suggested above, as you may have chosen different connectives. In the answers given here, the cause comes first in sentences 1–4 and 7 and the effect comes first in sentences 5 and 6.