If you would like a more in-depth understanding, you may like to read Coley and Tanner’s 2012 paper on the origins of misconceptions in biology, to get an insight into a range of student misconceptions and how these misconceptions cause problems when they clash with new knowledge.
Coley, J. D. and Tanner, K. D. (2012) ‘Common Origins of Diverse Misconceptions: Cognitive Principles and the Development of Biology Thinking’, CBE—Life Sciences Education, vol. 11, pp. 209–215 [Online]. Available at https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.12-06-0074 [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 5 June 2018).
If you are interested in finding out more about threshold concepts, read the following extract from the OU’s 2014 Innovating Pedagogy report.