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Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

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This free course was written by Rachel McMullan and Sarah Palmer. It was first published in October 2018.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated (see terms and conditions [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] ), this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 Licence.

The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence (not subject to Creative Commons Licence). Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce material in this free course:


Figures 1 and 2: from ‘Review on Antimicrobial Resistance.’ sites/ default/ files/ HI%26S%20Infographic_1_v4%20white.jpghttps://creatiand

Figure 3: Ignaz Semmelweis / Etching by Dob; akg-images

Figure 6: Unicef;

Figure 7: Royal Pharmaceutical Society

Figure 8: Crown Copyright doc/ open-government-licence/ version/ 3/

Figure 9: ‘Tackling drug-resistant infections globally: Final report and recommendations’; HM Government and Wellcome Trust; licenses/ by/ 4.0/

Figure10: licenses/ by/ 4.0/

Figure 11: Safely Reduce Antiobiotic Exposure; BRAHMS Procalcitonin (PCT): ThermoFisher Scientific

Figure 12: By J3D3 [CC BY-SA 3.0 (], from Wikimedia Commons

Figure 13: taken from Journal of Clinical Microbiology; Rapid Detection of Extended-Spectrum-ß-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Patrice Nordmann, Laurent Dortet and Laurent Poirel

Figure 14: Nesta;


Video 1: Ten steps to reducing antimicrobial resistance.The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry; 10 Steps to Reducing AMR - The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance

Video 5: Bang Goes the Theory, Series 7, broadcast 11 March 2013, © BBC

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

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