Understanding antibiotic resistance
Understanding antibiotic resistance

Start this free course now. Just create an account and sign in. Enrol and complete the course for a free statement of participation or digital badge if available.


Curtis, V., Schmidt, W., Luby, S., Florez, R., Toure, O. and Biran, A. (2011) ‘Hygiene: new hopes and new horizons’, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, pp 312–21 [Online]. Available at www.thelancet.com/ journals/ laninf/ article/ PIIS1473-3099(10)70224-3/ fulltext [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Judah, G., Donachie, P., Cobb, E., Schmidt, W., Holland, M. and Curtis, V. (2010) ‘Dirty hands: bacteria of faecal origin on commuters’ hands’, Epidemiology and Infection, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 409–14 [Online]. Available at www.cambridge.org/ core/ journals/ epidemiology-and-infection/ article/ dirty-hands-bacteria-of-faecal-origin-on-commuters-hands/ F2839868400191294EA5B38C2AE35340 (Accessed 16 February 2018).
Nordmann, P., Dortet, L. and Poirel, L. (2012) ‘Rapid detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae’, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 3016–22 [Online]. Available at http://jcm.asm.org/ content/ 50/ 9/ 3016.full (Accessed 24 February 2018).
O’Neill, J. (2016) Tackling Drug-resistant Infections Globally: final report and recommendations [Online]. Available at https://amr-review.org/ sites/ default/ files/ 160525_Final%20paper_with%20cover.pdf (Accessed 11 January 2018).
The Open University (2015) ‘1.4.2 Indirect person-to-person transmission’, SDK100 Science and health [Online]. Available at https://learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=993001&section=1.4.2 (Accessed 6 February 2018).
Prospero, E., Barbadoro, P., Esposto, E., Manso, E., Martini, E., Savini, S., Scaccia, F., Tantucci, L., Pelaia, P. and D’Errico, M. (2010) ‘Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases Klebsiella pneumoniae: multimodal infection control program in Intensive Care Units,’ Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 110–15 [Online]. Available at www.jpmh.org/ index.php/ jpmh/ article/ viewFile/ 223/ 205 (Accessed 22 February 2018).
World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in healthcare [Online], Geneva, World Health Organization. Available at http://apps.who.int/ iris/ bitstream/ 10665/ 44102/ 1/ 9789241597906_eng.pdf (Accessed 22 February 2018).
WHO and UNICEF (2017) Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene 2017. Update and SDG baselines [Online], Geneva, World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. Available at http://apps.who.int/ iris/ bitstream/ 10665/ 258617/ 1/ 9789241512893-eng.pdf?ua=1 (Accessed 19 January 2018).

Take your learning further

Making the decision to study can be a big step, which is why you'll want a trusted University. The Open University has 50 years’ experience delivering flexible learning and 170,000 students are studying with us right now. Take a look at all Open University courses.

If you are new to University-level study, we offer two introductory routes to our qualifications. You could either choose to start with an Access module, or a module which allows you to count your previous learning towards an Open University qualification. Read our guide on Where to take your learning next for more information.

Not ready for formal University study? Then browse over 1000 free courses on OpenLearn and sign up to our newsletter to hear about new free courses as they are released.

Every year, thousands of students decide to study with The Open University. With over 120 qualifications, we’ve got the right course for you.

Request an Open University prospectus371