1.3 What are the reasons for exclusion?

You will realise from the long list in Section 1.2 that there are many different reasons for exclusion. People can be excluded because of who they are, where they live, sociocultural reasons, lack of resources – and frequently a combination of these factors, as shown in Figure 1.2. The overlapping circles in the diagram indicate how there may be more than one reason for exclusion of any individual or group. The following sections explain each of these factors in turn.

Figure 1.2 Factors affecting exclusion of people from WASH services.

1.2 Who is excluded?

1.3.1 Individual and group attributes