1.3.4 Available resources

Providing new WASH services will always require funds for planning, design and construction. The budget available to the provider (e.g. government, regional bureau, charity) will be limited and costs need to be kept to a minimum. This can lead to intentional exclusion if the additional cost of, say, a handrail or ramp is considered to be too great.

Other limitations apply specifically to civil society organisations (CSOs) and nongovernmental organisations (NGOs). The Charities and Societies Proclamation of 2009 (FDRE, 2009a) restricts their role and states they must spend a minimum of 70% of their budget on programmes and no more than 30% on administration. International NGOs are not permitted to engage in rights-based advocacy or work to support the empowerment of vulnerable people and for local NGOs and CSOs this work is considered to be an administrative cost and limited by the 30% rule.

The word ‘resources’ not only refers to budgets and funding but also includes human resources. Sometimes exclusion is a result of lack of knowledge and appropriate training of the people who work for the WASH providers. They may not be aware of the various needs of different people on the one hand, or know about appropriate inclusive design, on the other. Inclusive design (also known as universal design) is design of any product or service that makes it accessible to and usable by as many people as possible, regardless of age, gender and disability. If the design is not inclusive from the outset, this may result in unintentional exclusion where the designed service is inaccessible to some people because the service providers did not have the necessary knowledge and skills.

Financial resources are an issue for service users as well as providers. They may also have limited funds so affordability is another important factor to consider. The majority of rural communities in Ethiopia do not have the resources to cover the construction costs for sanitation or the maintenance costs for water supply for the community as a whole, so inclusion of marginalised groups may not be high on their list of priorities.

1.3.3 Attitudes of other people

1.4 Benefits of inclusive WASH