Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 3
Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.
SAQ 3.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 3.1 and 3.2)
Rewrite the paragraph below using terms from the list provided to fill in the gaps.
gender; gender equality; gender mainstreaming, menstrual hygiene management; triple role; women’s empowerment
Women have the burden of a …………… in society that expects them to do unpaid work at home, productive work that brings in money, as well as contribute to community life. In WASH, women are at a disadvantage because traditional …………. roles assume men are the leaders so women are excluded from discussions and decision-making processes about WASH, even though they are the main users. The needs of women and girls are often disregarded in schools where latrine facilities, if they exist at all, are not designed according to guidelines and lack facilities for …………………….. Despite government ……………………… policies and growing awareness of the benefits of ……………………………, there is still some way to go to achieve ………………… in Ethiopia.
Women have the burden of a triple role in society that expects them to do unpaid work at home, productive work that brings in money, as well as contribute to community life. In WASH, women are at a disadvantage because traditional gender roles assume men are the leaders so women are excluded from discussions and decision-making processes about WASH, even though they are the main users. The needs of women and girls are often disregarded in schools where latrine facilities, if they exist at all, are not designed according to guidelines and lack facilities for menstrual hygiene management. Despite government gender mainstreaming policies and growing awareness of the benefits of women’s empowerment, there is still some way to go to achieve gender equality in Ethiopia.
SAQ 3.2 (tests Learning Outcome 3.3)
Genet was married at the age of 20. She took care of her family every day, starting at 6 a.m. While looking after her baby girl, she prepared breakfast for her husband before he went to work. Then she went to fetch water and had to walk more than 3km to reach a source of clean water. When it came to decision making, her husband took the lead in everything.
Her life changed when the woreda administration started working with an NGO to address the challenges for women in the community. They built a water point nearby and provided training in assertiveness skills for women. They also engaged respected religious and community leaders in a dialogue about getting women involved in decision making. These opportunities gave Genet’s life a new dimension. She was able to teach her husband to share responsibilities at home and most importantly could access WASH facilities safely and easily. Community members noticed Genet’s transformative actions and appointed her to the WASH committee with responsibility for empowering other women to participate in meetings, community dialogues and campaigns to support women in the community.
What elements in this story demonstrate Genet’s empowerment?
Genet’s life was previously dominated by domestic chores including fetching water, but after the water point was built nearby she had more time for other activities. Assertiveness training gave her new skills and confidence. She was also able to persuade her husband to help at home, which again gave her more time. The change in attitude of the male community leaders opened up opportunities for Genet. She was appointed to the WASH committee with the important role of helping other women to become involved.
SAQ 3.3 (tests Learning Outcomes 3.1 and 3.4)
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative indicators? Explain, with an example, why both are necessary for monitoring gender equality.
Quantitative indicators are measures that demonstrate change or progress towards a goal and are expressed in numbers. Qualitative indicators also demonstrate change or progress, but are concerned with attitudes and opinions and are usually expressed in words. Both are necessary for effective monitoring because quantitative indicators only tell part of the story. For example, monitoring gender equality in WASHCOs could use the number of women in the role of chair as an indicator, but this would not tell you how active or effective they were in the role.
Summary of Study Session 3