Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 1

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 1.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 1.1 and 1.3)

Emebet is a healthworker. Her weekly environmental health activities in her kebele include inspecting ten households and checking the proper storage of drinking water, food preparation and the presence of open windows. She also visits a first cycle school. In the same week, she inspects the local mill house and advises the workers how not to get hurt by machines.

Match Emebet’s different activities with the different areas of environmental health.

Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.

  1. Water supply

  2. Food hygiene/sanitation

  3. Housing sanitation or healthful housing

  4. School sanitation/hygiene

  5. Occupational hygiene

  • a.Inspecting for the presence of open windows

  • b.Inspecting ten households and checking the proper storage of drinking water

  • c.Visiting a first cycle school

  • d.Inspecting food preparation

  • e.Inspecting the local mill house and advising the workers how not to get hurt by machines

The correct answers are:
  • 1 = b
  • 2 = d
  • 3 = a
  • 4 = c
  • 5 = e

SAQ 1.2 (tests Learning Outcome 1.2)

Outline the differences and similarities in hygiene theory and practices in ancient and modern times.


  • Hygiene and sanitation law and practices existed in ancient as well as in modern times.
  • Laws in different religions are important for hygiene practices in ancient and modern times.
  • Ancient hygiene practices concentrated on personal hygiene and waste management (sanitation).
  • Modern understanding and practices of hygiene improved as it was discovered that microorganisms cause disease.
  • Improvements in housing, water supply and sanitation have improved health.

SAQ 1.3 (tests Learning Outcome 1.3)

Make a quick visit in your village or town and make a list for yourself of the hygiene and sanitation problems that you can see.


You should have made your own list of hygiene and sanitation problems that you can see in your town or village. The list might include: poor handwashing, flies on the face, many flies around the house, excreta around the house, uncovered water container, poor solid waste management, animals are sleeping together with humans, slab of latrine is poorly maintained, children not using latrine, etc.

SAQ 1.4 (tests Learning Outcome 1.4)

Diarrhoea among children under 5 is common in many rural villages. What environmental factors or practices may cause diarrhoea in young children?


You could list environmental factors such as open defecation, presence of flies, poor waste management that could support the breeding of flies, uncovered food, contaminated plates and cups, a mother not washing her hands after cleaning a child’s bottom or a child eating with dirty fingers.

SAQ 1.5 (tests Learning Outcome 1.5)

Development in your locality may bring job opportunities. List the specific kinds of development that are found in your locality and identify the types of environmental hazard they might cause.


Your answer will depend on your local situation but examples of economic developments include: mill house, dairy farm, hollow block manufacturing, woodwork or metalwork. Possible environmental hazards due to these undertakings depend on their nature but may include: liquid waste discharged to the immediate environment, presence of noise, presence of machines that cause accidents, absence of latrines, workers welding without eye protection, etc.

SAQ 1.6 (tests Learning Outcome 1.6)

Why do we need environmental health planning? What documents will you need to use or to produce when designing environmental health planning?


Environmental health planning is needed to:

  1. Address what must be done effectively – to identify needs and gaps in environmental health
  2. Utilise resources efficiently
  3. Set priorities for environmental health
  4. Implement changes wisely in a given time frame
  5. Make a link with the overall kebele social development.

You will need to use an environmental health questionnaire to collect survey information and you will need to produce a planning report. You may also use previous planning and performance reports and results from earlier surveys.

Summary of Study Session 1