1.3.3  Environmental intervention models

According to the Federal Ministry of Health, more than 80% of communicable diseases in Ethiopia are believed to be preventable using environmental health interventions. Generally, there are two intervention models: the clinical intervention model, which looks at treating the sick person, and the public health model, including environmental health, which looks at how to stop people getting sick in the first place by providing a healthy environment. This is indicated in Figure 1.4.

Health intervention models for the prevention and control of communicable diseases
Figure 1.4  Health intervention models for the prevention and control of communicable diseases. The clinical intervention model focuses on the treatment of patients, while the public health intervention model concentrates on the maintenance of health through education and keeping the environment safe. The red arrows indicate the points of intervention.

If we look at these two models in a wider context, then there are additional factors that must be considered. These include having helpful local policies, appropriate community (kebele) level organisations, sanitation legislation, developing sanitation technology options and poverty alleviation efforts. Political will in policy development in health and environmental health, designing the hygiene and sanitation legal frameworks and long-term socio-economic developments, are aspects of the government’s responsibilities. As a Health Extension Practitioner you have an important role in the prevention of environmental hazards that affect the health of the public.

1.3.2  The place of environmental health in your community

1.3.4  Environmental risk factors