5.9.2  Identifying the problems related to hygiene and sanitation

Problems can be identified by carrying out a sanitary inspection of each institution. Before your inspection visit you need to prepare a checklist of basic hygiene requirements that is relevant to the institutions and your local context. An example of a checklist for a school is shown in Table 5.1.

The checklist and your physical observations should provide good baseline data that is useful for analysing any problems and setting priorities. You could also use interviews and questionnaires as additional tasks for identifying problems. However, you should note that you cannot address all problems at once because they could be deep-rooted and require resources. Setting priorties based on the local situation is helpful to select the problems that can be resolved more easily.

Table 5.1  School health survey form.

No.QuestionResponse
1.0General information
1.1Date of inspection_____________
1.2Name of the institution_______________________________
1.3Number of students by sexMale:___ Female:___
1.4Address___________________________________________
1.5OwnershipPrivate or public
1.6Level of school1st cycle/2nd cycle/high school
2.0School compound
2.1 Location of school: hazards such as noise, proximity to road___________________________________________
2.2Compound sanitation: free from solid wastes, flowing liquid wasteYes/No, indicate the subject
3.0Classrooms
3.1WindowsAdequate/inadequate
3.2VentilationAdequate/inadequate
3.3LightingAdequate/inadequate
3.4Condition of classroom floorEarth/concrete/other
4.0 Water supply
4.1Is water available in the school compound?Yes/No
4.2SourcePiped/well/spring/river/pond/other
4.3Supply of drinking water and handwashing facilitiesYes/No
4.4Number of water taps_______
4.5Cleanliness around wash basinsYes/No
5.0Latrine provision
5.1 Is a latrine available in the school compound? Yes/No
5.2Type of latrinePit latrine/VIP/other
5.3Floor of latrineConcrete slab/earth
5.4Latrine available for:Students/teachers
5.5Separate latrines for male and female studentsYes/No
5.6Latrine superstructureYes/No
5.7Excreta seen around the latrineYes/No
5.8Excreta inside the latrineYes/No
5.9Can a student use the latrine in its current condition?Yes/No
5.10Number of latrine holes_______
6.0Solid waste management
6.1Is there a refuse container in the compound?Yes/No
6.2Is there a refuse container in each classroom?Yes/No
6.3Is there a burial pit for refuse?Yes/No
6.4Is there an incinerator?Yes/No
7.0Students’ personal hygiene (observe a few students)
7.1ClothingIntact/torn/clean/unclean
7.2HairClean/unclean
7.3FaceClean/unclean
7.4NitsYes/No
7.5FeetClean/unclean
7.6FingernailsClean/unclean
7.7EyesClean/unclean
7.8LiceYes/No
7.9TeethClean/unclean
7.10ScabiesYes/No
8.0Summary of main findings
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
9.0Suggestions
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________

5.9.1  Knowing the scope of your activity

5.9.3  Identifying partners that you can work with