Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 9

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 9.1 (tests Learning Outcomes 9.1 and 9.2)

Explain the difference between foodborne diseases caused by infections and those caused by poisoning.


Diseases caused by food infection result from ingestion of food that has been contaminated by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, parasitic organisms and fungi.

Diseases caused by food poisoning result from ingestion of food that has been contaminated by a toxin or poison which may be of chemical or biological origin.

SAQ 9.2 (tests Learning Outcome 9.2)

Outline three factors that contribute to the widespread occurrence of foodborne disease in Ethiopia.


There are many possible factors you may have identified including:

  • poor personal hygiene by food handlers
  • dirty kitchen utensils and work surfaces
  • eating food that has been contaminated by washing with unsafe water
  • poor storage of food so flies and other disease vectors can come in contact with it
  • inadequate cooking or reheating of food

SAQ 9.3 (tests Learning Outcome 9.3)

Which of the following foodborne diseases is different from the others and why?

  • typhoid fever
  • amoebiasis
  • shigellosis
  • cholera.


Typhoid fever, shigellosis and cholera are all bacterial foodborne infections. Amoebiasis is a parasitic infection.

SAQ 9.4 (tests Learning Outcome 9.4)

Imagine you received a report that several people had become ill after a recent wedding ceremony. You were told that at least 20 people had developed acute diarrhoea within 24 hours. What would be your first step in investigating this outbreak?


The first step would be to gather information about the outbreak. You would need to find out exactly how many people were affected, what their ages were and whether they were male or female. You would need to confirm that they had all been together at the wedding ceremony and ask what they had eaten and when they each became ill.

You may also need to consider further steps such as taking samples from the patients or samples of food.

Summary of Study Session 9