12.4.3  Essentials of milk hygiene

Milk sanitation, i.e. the protection of milk from dirt and contamination, is essential to prevent milk infection. Clean milk (with a low number of bacteria) is a necessity, and is possible by using good milking hygiene (Figure 12.9).

Milking a clean and healthy cow
Figure 12.9  Milking a clean and healthy cow.

The essential steps in hygienic milk production are summarised in Box 12.1.

Box 12.1  Hygienic milk production

  • Animals must be clean and healthy.
  • Milking should be done away from the herd.
  • The milk handler should also be clean and healthy. S/he should wear clean outer garments during milking or processing the milk.
  • The milking room should be clean, ventilated and dustless.
  • Utensils and equipment for milking and milk handling must be clean.
  • Immediately before milking the udder and teats of the cow must be washed with clean lukewarm water and dried with clean cloths – a separate one for each cow.
  • Immediately after milking the milk must be removed from the shed, placed in a clean and covered receptacle and kept in a cool place.

12.4.2  Diseases that may be transmitted from milk cows

12.4.4  Methods of making milk safe