Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 12

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 12.1 (tests Learning Outcome 12.1)

What is kosso?


Kosso is a tree (Hagenia abyssinica) whose leaves contain a taeniacide (tapeworm-killing agent). It is also the common Ethiopian name for the tapeworm disease that occurs through eating raw beef.

SAQ 12.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 12.2, 12.3 and 12.4)

Explain why eating raw beef is inadvisable and how the risks can be minimised.


Raw beef could be infected with Taenia saginata and people who eat it could get beef tapeworm disease. Raw meat should not be eaten, but risks can be minimised by only eating meat from cattle that have been kept on pasture free of faeces or other contaminants. The cattle should then be slaughtered in a licensed abattoir where the meat is inspected and stamped as safe. The meat should be transported and stored hygienically unitil it is eaten.

SAQ 12.3 (tests Learning Outcome 12.4)

Outline the main steps in abattoir inspection and explain why inspection is important for food safety.


Animals should be inspected before and after slaughter at the abattoir. Live animals should be observed for any signs of illness. Animal carcasses should be closely examined by experienced inspectors who can identify the visible signs of contamination such as tapeworm cysts. If the meat is healthy it will be marked with an indelible stamp to indicate it is safe for human consumption. The inspection process is important to ensure the health of anyone who eats the meat and to prevent the spread of disease.

SAQ 12.4 (tests Learning Outcome 12.5)

You bought some fish today but you will not eat it until tomorrow. Describe a. how you will keep it overnight and b. how you will tell if the fish is safe to eat tomorrow.


  • a.Fish should be eaten as soon as possible after it is caught. If it needs to be kept, it should be chilled until use or kept as cool as possible.
  • b.The fish should be examined for signs of freshness. Fish that is safe to eat is free of slime and odour. The body should be stiff and the eyes convex and clear. The gills should be closed and the scales should not be falling off. If the fish sinks in water it is probably safe to eat.

SAQ 12.5 (tests Learning Outcome 12.6)

Your brother has just bought two cows and wants to sell the milk to his neighbours. What advice would you give him so that everyone can be sure of the milk’s safety?


Your brother should be advised to keep his cows clean and healthy, in a hygienic environment. He must milk the animals in a clean place, wiping the udder and teats before he starts and using disinfected utensils. He must only milk the cows if he is healthy and clean himself. After milking, the milk should be kept cold and sold as quickly as possible.

SAQ 12.6 (tests Learning Outcomes 12.2 and 12.6)

In a nearby community, it is common to drink raw milk from goats and there is a frequent problem of coughing among children and older people. Outline your advice to the community to help them avoid this illness.


There are many possible causes of coughing as a common problem in a community, so you should consider other possible options as well as the raw milk. Raw milk is a source of many diseases that affect the lungs, including TB, brucellosis and Q fever. This community should not drink raw milk but should treat it in some way. If there is no local treatment plant available, they should boil the milk for 30 minutes, then cool it quickly and keep it cold until it is drunk. They may not want to comply with this as boiling alters the flavour of the milk, but it does destroy the pathogens so is better for them.

SAQ 12.7 (tests Learning Outcomes 12.2 and 12.7)

There is an outbreak of an unknown bird disease, killing many chickens in your village. As a Health Extension Practitioner for your local community, what advice would you give in this situation?


Poultry and their eggs should only be eaten if the animals are healthy. The sick animals should not be eaten, but should be disposed of by burning the carcasses. Good attention must be paid to the cleanliness of the poultry coops, and handlers should avoid approaching healthy birds after handling sick ones. Veterinary care should be given to the chickens if possible.

Summary of Study Session 12