Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 15

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.

SAQ 15.1 (tests Learning Outcome 15.1)

Match the following phrases with the corresponding words below.

Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.

  1. Rivers and lakes

  2. Freshwater supply beneath the Earth’s surface

  3. Underground water-bearing rock layer

  4. Water trickling down through soil

  • a.Percolation

  • b.Surface water

  • c.Groundwater

  • d.Aquifer

The correct answers are:
  • 1 = b
  • 2 = c
  • 3 = d
  • 4 = a

SAQ 15.2 (tests Learning Outcome 15.2 and 15.3)

A community leader in a village comes to your office claiming the villagers use water from an unprotected source. He asks if you can help in the development of a new water source. What steps need to be taken to investigate if a new water source was possible for this village?


A plan for the new water source would need to be prepared. This would involve the community, the community leaders and the local administration. The following steps would be needed:

  • Identify the community’s water and sanitation needs.
  • Identify possible sources of water, which could include groundwater from springs or wells, and rainwater.
  • Identify potential sources of pollutants of the proposed water source.
  • Identify the amount of water that would satisfy the needs of all community members.

SAQ 15.3 (tests Learning Outcome 15.4)

Suppose inhabitants of a village obtain water from a spring. What advice do you give to the users about the prevention of contaminants?


The users of the spring should be advised to:

  • Avoid open defecation around the spring.
  • Not construct latrines above the spring because of the danger of contaminated groundwater.
  • Use latrines properly.
  • Keep animals away from the spring.

SAQ 15.4 (tests Learning Outcome 15.4)

Look at Figure 15.8 which shows a handpump over a well. What are the potential sources of contamination of the water in this well? What would you recommend should be done to improve protection?

Figure 15.8  For use with SAQ 15.4. (Photo: Janet Haresnape)


The wall and fence has been broken down so animals could get in and contaminate the area around the pump. The stone wall and wooden fence should be repaired and a gate fitted so that people can gain access but animals cannot.

Summary of Study Session 15