Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 21
Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this Module.
SAQ 21.1 (tests Learning Outcome SAQ 21.1)
Rewrite the paragraph below using terms from the list provided to fill the gaps.
The terms to use are: PHAST; behaviour change; CLTS; CATS; total sanitation; ODF status.
Improving latrine utilisation requires ________ by the people in the community. Some people may need to be persuaded that ________ and _______ are valuable aims that will help prevent the spread of disease. There are various approaches that can be used to try to achieve _________. Two examples of these approaches are _______ and _________. Both these methods depend on involving the whole community in the process and they are grouped together as _______.
Improving latrine utilisation requires behaviour change by the people in the community. Some people may need to be persuaded that total sanitation and ODF status are valuable aims that will help prevent the spread of disease. There are various approaches that can be used to try to achieve behaviour change. Two examples of these approaches are PHAST and CLTS. Both these methods depend on involving the whole community in the process and they are grouped together as CATS.
SAQ 21.2 (tests Learning Outcomes 21.2 and 21.3)
Imagine a small village of about 20 households where open defecation is the normal practice. You have visited the village and, from discussions with the people there, you know that most of them are ignorant of the importance of sanitation. They say to you that they have always lived in this way and so did their parents and grandparents before them. They are reluctant to change their habits. What methods would you consider to motivate change in their behaviour?
The people in this village are not aware of the importance of sanitation so you would need to find ways to educate them about the connection between hygiene and sanitation, and their health. You could ask to speak to a community meeting but this approach may not be successful if you simply stand and talk to the villagers. You could suggest a coffee ceremony or other social gathering as a means to initiate discussion about the issue and to encourage people to attend. You could consider individual house-to-house visits to have more private conversations with individuals and families about hygiene and sanitation. Individual visits may help you identify potential model households that you could also use in your campaign. With the cooperation of the community, and if you had had the appropriate training or could call on the support of others who had, you may also consider using a CLTS approach. You may have to adopt several of these approaches and be flexible according to the responses you get from the community. You should also recognise that it may take time to convince the people of the benefit of change.
SAQ 21.3 (tests Learning Outcome 21.4)
In the same village as SAQ 21.2, imagine there was one family that had their own latrine. You think they might be willing to be a model household to demonstrate good hygiene and sanitation to the others. What would you say to them to encourage them to volunteer as a model household?
To encourage the family to become a model household you will need to explain to them the purpose and benefits of the role. You should discuss the importance of correct latrine construction and use, and the importance of handwashing with them to check they have a complete understanding. You should check the condition of their latrine and that they have handwashing facilities and use them routinely. You could explain that being a model household will bring respect and admiration from others and they can be proud of their position and achievements. You should also explain that their attitude to others needs to be supportive and encouraging, not bossy and dictatorial.
SAQ 21.4 (tests Learning Outcome 21.5)
Identify one similarity and one difference between PHAST and CLTS approaches.
PHAST and CLTS are both community-based approaches to achieving total sanitation. They aim to promote behaviour change in the community.
PHAST uses techniques such as mapping and community discussions to promote change. CLTS uses similar techniques but also depends on confronting the community members with questions that make them realise the impact of open defecation. By bringing these questions out into the open, the community is ‘triggered’ into action to change their behaviour.
SAQ 21.5 (tests Learning Outcome 21.6)
Assume you have successfully implemented a CLTS programme. How do you really know if you have been successful?
To assess the success of the programme you would need to survey latrine use in the community. You would also need to have done a baseline survey before the CLTS programme so that you had the data of latrine utilisation beforehand to compare with. The data you would need to collect would include the number of households with a latrine and handwashing facility, how many of them use their latrine, and whether there were any signs of open defecation anywhere in the area such as faeces visible in fields, paths, compounds, etc.
Summary of Study Session 21