17.3.1  How common is enuresis and what is its impact?

Enuresis is one of the most common complaints in childhood. At the age of 5 years, about 20% of children have enuresis. At the age of 7, around 5% of children have this problem, while around 1% of 18-year-olds still experience enuresis. Enuresis has an impact on both the child and the family. The child loses self-confidence, may be teased by siblings and friends, and often faces punishment by the parents. The family or parents looking after the child worry about the wellbeing of the child. They may feel frustrated and think that the child can stop wetting if they try harder. But it is very unusual for a child to intentionally wet themselves. Punishing or shaming a child for it will frequently make the situation worse, as the child may feel ashamed and lose confidence in their ability to overcome this problem.

17.3.2  What causes enuresis?