17.3.2 What causes enuresis?
Most enuresis is a developmental or maturational problem and is not related to any physical or mental health problem (Box 17.3). Only 5–10% of children with enuresis have a physical or mental health problem that is causing the enuresis. Enuresis is more common in boys than in girls.
Box 17.3 Some causes of enuresis
- Developmental — 9 out of 10 children with enuresis
- Genetic — if a family member has a history of enuresis, the risk of enuresis is higher
- Infection — infection of the kidney, bladder or urinary passage (urethra). This will result in other symptoms of infection, such as pain during urination, frequent urination and fever
- Physical abnormalities — a small number of children have this problem (for example, a small bladder)
- Stress — such as conflict within the family, birth of a new baby, sickness and anxiety.