17.3.2  What causes enuresis?

Most enuresis is a developmental or maturational problem and is not related to any physical or mental health problem (Box 17.3). Only 5–10% of children with enuresis have a physical or mental health problem that is causing the enuresis. Enuresis is more common in boys than in girls.

Box 17.3 Some causes of enuresis

  • Developmental — 9 out of 10 children with enuresis
  • Genetic — if a family member has a history of enuresis, the risk of enuresis is higher
  • Infection — infection of the kidney, bladder or urinary passage (urethra). This will result in other symptoms of infection, such as pain during urination, frequent urination and fever
  • Physical abnormalities — a small number of children have this problem (for example, a small bladder)
  • Constipation
  • Stress — such as conflict within the family, birth of a new baby, sickness and anxiety.

17.3.1  How common is enuresis and what is its impact?

17.3.3  Treatment of enuresis