Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 19

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions. Write your answers in your Study Diary and discuss them with your Tutor at the next Study Support Meeting. You can check your answers with the Notes on the Self-Assessment Questions at the end of this module.

Read the following case study and answer the questions at the end.

Case Study 19.1  Mr Abebe

When Mr Abebe was 5 years old, he was hit by a truck when it passed through his village while he was playing on the road. He was severely injured and as a consequence of the accident his left leg had to be amputated. It took a long time for the young boy to recover, but he gradually learned to walk again with the help of crutches. He became so skilful in using his crutches that, by the time he reached adolescence, he would often take part in the village football game, by leaning on one crutch while kicking the ball. Mr Abebe is now a grown-up man with a small vegetable farm. On Wednesdays he sells some of his products at the local market. Unfortunately Mr Abebe’s vision has recently started to deteriorate due to an untreated eye infection. His vision is now so bad that he has difficulty reading. Recently the organisation that manages the local market provided some training documents on food hygiene. Unfortunately Mr Abebe was not able to read these documents, as they were printed in a very small print.

SAQ 19.1 (tests Learning Outcome 19.1 and 19.2)

  • a.In the case study, identify what type(s) of impairment Mr Abebe has, and how his impairment leads to disability.
  • b.Give an example of inclusion from Mr Abebe’s case story.


  • a.Mr Abebe has multiple impairments: he has a physical impairment that impacts on his mobility (because of a leg amputation). Mr Abebe also has impaired vision. Because of his visual impairments, Mr Abebe could not read the training documents on food hygiene provided by the organisation that manages the market. Because the document was only available in small print, Mr Abebe did not have access to this information, leading to a disabling situation.
  • b.When Mr Abebe was an adolescent, he was so skilful with his crutches that he could participate in the local football game. This is an example of inclusion.

SAQ 19.2 (tests Learning Outcome 19.3)

Read the descriptions of the following three situations of communication with a person with a disability. For each situation indicate whether the communication is appropriate or not. If it is not appropriate, explain why.

A  When you speak to someone who uses a wheelchair, sit down so that both your heads are approximately at the same level.

B  When someone has difficulty speaking, interrupt them and try to finish their sentence for them so that they have to speak less.

C  When you speak to someone who has an intellectual disability, you should ask all your questions at once so that you are finished quickly.


A  This type of communication is appropriate. When you speak to someone in a wheelchair, it is good to place yourself at eye level to facilitate the conversation.

B  This communication style is inappropriate. When someone has difficulty speaking it is important to be patient and wait for the person to finish their sentences, rather than to interrupt them or speak for them.

C  This communication style is inappropriate. When you speak to someone with an intellectual disability, you should try to speak slowly and in clear and short sentences. Ask one question at a time and give the person enough time to respond.

SAQ 19.3 (tests Learning Outcome 19.4)

From the list below, identify which factors are likely or unlikely causes of impairment that could result in disability. If it is an unlikely cause, explain why.

A  A genetic condition a person is born with.

B  Malnutrition because the crops failed a few years in a row.

C  Being possessed by the devil.


A  This is a likely cause of disability. Genetic conditions can give rise to a range of disabilities, including intellectual disability and physical impairments.

B  This is a likely cause of disability. Malnutrition makes people more susceptible to disease, which may in turn lead to impairments. Malnutrition can also directly cause impairment. For example, if a mother receives inadequate nutrition during pregnancy, it can lead to intellectual impairment in the child.

C  This is not a cause of disability. Use the social or human rights model to explain disability, rather than a local cultural view (like being possessed by the devil).

SAQ 19.4 (tests Learning Outcomes 19.1, 19.5 and 19.6)

Give one example of how you can improve inclusion for people with disabilities in mainstream programmes and services, and one example of how you can improve access to services designed specifically for people with disabilities.


Examples of how you can improve access for people with disabilities in your community to mainstream programmes and services include:

  • Setting the right example by making sure that your awareness-raising meetings are accessible for everyone.
  • Liaising with the local school (or other local facilities) so that ramps are provided to make sure that children who use crutches or a wheelchair can access the school.

Examples of how you can improve access to specialist services for people with disabilities include:

  • Finding out about initiatives especially designed for people with disabilities (e.g. providers of hearing aids, crutches, etc.) in your local area, and making sure that the people concerned in your community know about them.
  • Looking out for people with impairments in your area, so that underlying causes due to disease or injury can be treated, and so that the people concerned can be referred to specialist services where these exist.

Summary of Study Session 19