The following references relate to this course from the original award-winning learning programme, ‘Understanding Parkinson’s for health and social care staff’ programme.

Funayama M et al (2022) 'Molecular genetics of Parkinson’s disease: Contributions and global trends', Journal of Human Genetics. Available at

Lang AE and Obeso JA (2004) ‘Challenges in Parkinson's disease: restoration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system is not enough’ The Lancet Neurology; 3(5):309–316

MacMahon DG, Thomas S, Campbell (1999) ‘Validation of pathways paradigm for the management of PD’, Parkinsonism & Related. Disorders;5:S53

Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) 2022

NICE, Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (2022). Available at [Accessed September 2022]

Ho, A K et al (2008) ‘For better or worse: The effect of levodopa on speech in Parkinson's disease’, Movement Disorders; 23(4):574–80

Dashtipour K et al (2018) ‘Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology, medical management and surgical approaches’. Neurodegenerative Disease Management. doi: 10.2217/nmt-2018-0021 [Accessed September 2022]

Jankovic J (2008) ‘Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis’, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry; 79(4):368–76

Schapira AH et al (2009) ‘Levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease’, European Journal of Neurology; 16(9):982–9

Zarotti, N., Eccles, F.J.R., Foley, J.A., Paget, A., Gunn, S., Leroi, I. and Simpson, J. (2021), Psychological interventions for people with Parkinson’s disease in the early 2020s: Where do we stand?. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract, 94: 760-797.

Won JH et al (2021) 'Risk and mortality of aspiration pneumonia in Parkinson's disease: a nationwide database study'. Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 23;11(1):6597. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-86011-w

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Parkinson's disease in adults: NICE guideline [NG71] overview (2017). Available at [Accessed September 2022]

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Parkinson’s disease in adults: diagnosis and management (2017). Available at guidance/ NG71 [Tip: hold Ctrl and click a link to open it in a new tab. (Hide tip)] [Accessed September 2022]

NICE Parkinson's disease quality standard [QS164] (2018). Available at guidance/ qs164 [Accessed September 2022]

5.3 Feedback and find out more