Summary of Study Session 1

In Study Session 1, you have learned that:

  1. Water is essential for life. Drinking water must be safe, of adequate quantity, accessible and affordable.
  2. Water has several uses of which the most important are for personal consumption and cleanliness, for irrigation, and for industry. The quality of water acceptable for the various uses can be different.
  3. Urban water supply may originate from springs, wells or surface water. Water from springs and wells is generally used without any treatment, while surface water needs treatment before it is safe to drink.
  4. In an urban water distribution network, transmission mains take water from water treatment plants to service reservoirs. Service reservoirs are located on high ground so that water flows by gravity through distribution mains to the water consumers. Where there is no high ground, water towers are constructed and used.
  5. Water supply planning must take account of present and future water demand by people, and by industrial and commercial development. Domestic use is likely to increase as living standards improve. Planning also needs to consider the needs of schools, health facilities and other institutions.
  6. There are many challenges facing urban water supply in Ethiopia and several factors that can contribute to overcoming them, including increased funding, reduced bureaucracy, capacity building, better coordination between the stakeholders involved, and better information management.

1.4  The challenges for urban water supply in Ethiopia

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 1