2.3.2  Malaria

Malaria is a parasitic disease transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito and caused by the pathogenic protozoa Plasmodium. When a mosquito bites an infected individual it sucks up blood containing the parasite. If it then bites a healthy person, the protozoa is transferred into their blood and they can become ill. The mosquitoes breed in standing water such as swamps, lakes, pools and open channels dug for crop irrigation; even a puddle can provide enough water for mosquitoes to breed. Only the female mosquitoes take human blood, which is needed to develop their eggs. The most likely time for mosquitoes to bite is in the early evening or at night.

  • Can you think of ways to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes?

  • Wearing long-sleeved clothing and using insect repellents helps to keep people from being bitten. At night, mosquito nets (preferably impregnated with permethrin, which is toxic to mosquitoes) or various sprays or vapours can be used to keep them away.

2.3.1  Diarrhoeal diseases

2.3.3  Parasitic worm infections