3.3.2  Springs

Groundwater may emerge above ground as a spring. This happens in locations where the water table reaches the surface, or where the boundary between a permeable layer of underground rock and an impermeable layer reaches the ground surface, as shown in Figure 3.3. Springs are normally found at the foot of mountains and hills, in lower slopes of valleys, and near the banks of major rivers. The water emerging at a spring may vary in volume and contamination levels, in response to the amount of rainfall. Springs are likely to be polluted by direct contamination from run-off seeping through the topsoil unless the surrounding land area is protected. A spring supply issuing from a deep, water-bearing layer, rather than a permeable layer near the surface, can produce both a consistent volume and a better-quality supply.

Spring source protection

Whether the spring originates from shallow or deep rock layers, animals should be excluded from the surrounding area by a stock-proof fence. Springs should be protected from flooding and surface water pollution by constructing a deep diversion ditch above and around the spring. The ditch should be constructed so that it collects surface water running towards the spring and carries or diverts it away. It needs to be deep enough to carry all surface water away, even in a heavy rainstorm.

Small springs are typically protected by a ‘spring box’ (Figure 3.10), which is constructed of brick, masonry or concrete, and is built around the spring so that water flows directly out of the box into a pipe or cistern, without being exposed to outside pollution such as run-off, bird droppings and animals. The spring box should have a watertight cover with a lock. Larger springs serving towns are protected in a similar way. Figure 3.11 shows the protected spring that supplies water to the city of Bahir Dar.

Figure 3.10  A spring box.
Figure 3.11  Protected spring providing water for Bahir Dar. The concrete slab on the left covers and protects the source of the water.

3.3.1 Wells and boreholes

3.4  Surface waters