Summary of Study Session 3

In Study Session 3, you have learned that:

  1. Protected water sources (often called ‘improved’ water sources) are those that have barriers against contaminants and provide water that is safe to drink.
  2. The drinking water ladder describes the steps in improvement of quality of water supply.
  3. In Ethiopia in 2012, protected water sources supplied 97% of the water to urban populations, and 42% of the water to rural populations.
  4. Urban areas can obtain water supplies from groundwater, surface water and rainwater.
  5. Groundwater sources such as shallow wells, deep wells (boreholes) and springs should be protected against contamination by animals and surface run-off.
  6. Disinfection of the equipment at wells should be undertaken regularly.
  7. Surface waters are more prone to contamination than groundwater, and usually require treatment.
  8. Rainwater has several advantages as a water source.
  9. New water source development has to consider the capacity of the new source to supply water for a considerable time, and take into account factors such as raw water quality, seasonal variation, distance from consumers, cost, environmental impact and sustainability.

3.6  Water source development

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 3