Summary of Study Session 3
In Study Session 3, you have learned that:
- Protected water sources (often called ‘improved’ water sources) are those that have barriers against contaminants and provide water that is safe to drink.
- The drinking water ladder describes the steps in improvement of quality of water supply.
- In Ethiopia in 2012, protected water sources supplied 97% of the water to urban populations, and 42% of the water to rural populations.
- Urban areas can obtain water supplies from groundwater, surface water and rainwater.
- Groundwater sources such as shallow wells, deep wells (boreholes) and springs should be protected against contamination by animals and surface run-off.
- Disinfection of the equipment at wells should be undertaken regularly.
- Surface waters are more prone to contamination than groundwater, and usually require treatment.
- Rainwater has several advantages as a water source.
- New water source development has to consider the capacity of the new source to supply water for a considerable time, and take into account factors such as raw water quality, seasonal variation, distance from consumers, cost, environmental impact and sustainability.