5.2.2  Aeration

After screening, the water is aerated (supplied with air) by passing it over a series of steps so that it takes in oxygen from the air. This helps expel soluble gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide (both of which are acidic, so this process makes the water less corrosive) and also expels any gaseous organic compounds that might give an undesirable taste to the water. Aeration also removes iron or manganese by oxidation of these substances to their insoluble form. Iron and manganese can cause peculiar tastes and can stain clothing. Once in their insoluble forms, these substances can be removed by filtration.

In certain instances excess algae in the raw water can result in algal growth blocking the sand filter further down the treatment process. In such situations, chlorination is used in place of, or in addition to, aeration to kill the algae, and this is termed pre-chlorination. This comes before the main stages in the treatment of the water. (There is a chlorination step at the end of the treatment process, which is normal in most water treatment plants). The pre-chlorination also oxidises taste- and odour-causing compounds.

5.2.3  Coagulation and flocculation