Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) for Study Session 8

Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering the following questions.

SAQ 8.1 (tests Learning Outcome 8.1)

Match the following words to their correct definitions.

Using the following two lists, match each numbered item with the correct letter.

  1. hazardous event

  2. Water Safety Plan

  3. compliance monitoring

  4. audit trail

  5. risk assessment

  6. hazard

  7. incident

  8. risk

  9. supporting programmes

  • a.the chance of a hazard occurring

  • b.anything that can cause harm

  • c.an emergency

  • d.analysis of water to check that it is within standards

  • e.training programmes that contribute to the delivery of safe water

  • f.the process by which the likelihood of harm from a potential hazard is assessed

  • g.documentation of the sequence of activities that led to a given decision

  • h.a plan that proactively seeks to identify and control risks to safe and continuous water supply

  • i.an event that can introduce a hazard to a water supply

The correct answers are:
  • 1 = i
  • 2 = h
  • 3 = d
  • 4 = g
  • 5 = f
  • 6 = b
  • 7 = c
  • 8 = a
  • 9 = e

SAQ 8.2 (tests Learning Outcome 8.2)

Explain briefly why a Water Safety Plan is necessary.

Answer

A Water Safety Plan is necessary to ensure that the water that is produced and delivered to consumers is safe. It also ensures that the chance of an incident disrupting the continuous supply of water is minimised.

SAQ 8.3a (tests Learning Outcome 8.3)

Arrange the steps of the Water Safety Plan shown below in the right order:

  • Prepare management procedures.
  • Identify the hazards and hazardous events.
  • Define the monitoring system for each control measure.
  • Assemble a team of experts.
  • Develop supporting programmes.
  • Prepare a verification programme to check that the Water Safety Plan is working.
  • Describe the water supply system.
  • Carry out a risk assessment and prioritise the risks.
  • Identify the control measures needed for each risk.
  • Document all of the steps.

Answer

The correct order is:

  1. Assemble a team of experts.
  2. Describe the water supply system.
  3. Identify the hazards and hazardous events.
  4. Carry out a risk assessment and prioritise the risks.
  5. Identify the control measures needed for each risk.
  6. Define the monitoring system for each control measure.
  7. Prepare management procedures.
  8. Prepare a verification programme to check that the Water Safety Plan is working.
  9. Develop supporting programmes.
  10. Document all of the steps.

SAQ 8.3b (tests Learning Outcome 8.3)

Look at Figure 8.8, which shows a well that is the sole water source for a village. Based on what you can see in the photograph, undertake the following:

  • Hazard assessment
  • Risk assessment
  • Identification of the control measures needed for each risk
  • Definition of the monitoring system for each control measure.
Figure 8.8  A potential abstraction point for drinking water.

Answer

Your answers should be along the following lines:

Hazard assessment: The well is open and presents several hazards. There is no wall around it, so people or animals can contaminate the water easily, either by entering the water, or by people using contaminated utensils or containers when collecting water. There is a possibility of surface water running into it, and also wind-blown debris entering the water.

Risk assessment: The risk of contamination is high, especially since it is the sole source of water for the village, so the risk assessment score will also be high.

Identification of control measures needed for each risk: A metre-high concrete wall around the well will be an effective means of preventing direct contact with the water. A rope-and-pulley system should be set up with a bucket so that water can be drawn from the well. This water can then be put into containers brought by the people. A wall will also keep out surface run-off and wind-blown debris.

Definition of the monitoring system for each control measure: Regular inspection (say, monthly) of the wall must be undertaken to ensure that it is not cracked. The pulley-and-bucket system should also be checked (say, weekly) to ensure that it is working properly and is kept clean. The bucket should be checked for cracks.

SAQ 8.4 (tests Learning Outcome 8.4)

In the Water Safety Plan implemented in Hentalo Wejerat woreda, what were the changes made that improved the safety of the water supply?

Answer

The following measures improved the safety of the water supply:

  • Raising the awareness of the community to good hygiene and sanitation led to cleaner water points and improved water handling, both at the water points and in residents’ homes.
  • The construction of more latrines led to a reduction in open defecation.
  • Making the water points secure by repairing the fencing and installing gates (where necessary) helped prevent contamination by animals.

Summary of Study Session 8